Review Article | Volume: 14, Issue: 5, May, 2024

Traditional uses and phytopharmacology of Cirsium arvense: Bioprospecting potential of a weed from temperate biome

Acharya Balkrishna Hemant Sharma Ankita Kukreti Amita Kumari Priyanka Saini Vedpriya Arya Ashwani Kumar   

Open Access   

Published:  May 05, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2024.168589
Abstract

Cirsium arvense, a noxious weed of the Asteraceae family, has potential medicinal benefits. Traditionally, it has been used to cure ulcers, mouth infections, leukemia, dentalgia, canker sores, pharyngitis, and other ailments. Alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and diverse phytoconstituents are associated with its therapeutic potential. This review article sheds light on C. arvense’s taxonomy, geographical distribution, ethnomedicinal uses, and phytopharmacology. Despite its weedy nature, it has been a rich source of phytoconstituents, which is evident from its antimicrobial (against Gram-positive and negative strains), antioxidant (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl and others), and antiproliferative (HeLa, A43, and MCF7 cell lines) potential. Hispidulin, luteolin, and tracin, isolated from C. arvense were reported to be with antibacterial potential. Based on its bioactive components, a proposed mechanism for antibacterial action is also highlighted. A toxicity study revealed that the aerial parts of C. arvense are toxic (LC50 of 51 μg/ml). Bioprospecting of this weed after detailed follow-up studies will help manage C. arvense in the future.


Keyword:     Antioxidant antimicrobial antiproliferative phytoconstituents bioprospecting


Citation:

Balkrishna A, Sharma H, Kukreti A, Kumari A, Saini P, Arya V, Kumar A. Traditional uses and phytopharmacology of Cirsium arvense: Bioprospecting potential of a weed from temperate biome. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2024;14(05):030–037. http://doi.org/10.7324JAPS.2024.168589

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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INTRODUCTION

Emerging infections, drug resistance, and oxidative stress-mediated diseases have made it inevitable to search for new antioxidants and antimicrobials. In this context, plants could be used as safe and efficacious therapeutic options; several plants have been reported with diverse biological properties and therapeutic potential [16]. Among various plant families, Asteraceae is the most prominent family of the plant kingdom. It includes 1,701 accepted genera and over 24,000 species [7,8], comprising ~10% of the flowering plants. Most family members are annual or perennial herbs; some tropical forms include shrubs, vines, and trees [9]. These can be categorized into ornamental plants (Tagetes, Chrysanthemum, Calendula, Ageratum), wild plants (Brachyscome, Arctium, Boltonia), noxious weeds (Taraxacum, Carduus, Cirsium), and economically important plants (Lactuca, Cynara, Helianthus, Artemisia). The characteristic feature of this family is its inflorescence, called calathium or capitulum [10].

Asteraceae’s genus Cirsium (thistle) is an annual, biennial or perennial herb. It comprises approximately 378 recognized species of spiny, perennial, biennial, or rarely yearly [8]. The species are found throughout the northern hemisphere (North America, North Africa, Asia, and Eurasia), from subtropical to boreal latitudes [11,12]. The plants of Cirsium genus are mainly utilized for the treatment of leukemia and peptic ulcer in folklore medicine [13], epistaxis, eye infections, metrorrhagia, syphilis [14], gonorrhea, skin sores, bleeding piles, diabetes, and hemostasis, therefore, making them safe and effective medicine [1517]. Numerous phytochemicals such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, polyacetylenes, acetylenes, phenylpropanoids, sterols, and terpenoids contribute to these medicinal qualities of Cersium species [18]. Among various species, Cirsium vulgare and Cirsium arvense are considered noxious weeds [8,19].

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. is one of the world’s most troublesome and persistent weeds. It is native to Europe and the northern hemisphere but was also introduced to North America in the 1600s and the southern hemisphere [20]. It is often found in grasslands and riparian habitats. Even as a weed, C. arvense is known for its medicinal properties [21,22]. For example, plant decoction is a remedy for epistaxis, gastrointestinal disorders, hemorrhage, hypertension, metrorrhagia, pyogenic infections, scabies, ulcers, and skin diseases [23,24]. Additionally, C. arvense was reported as an antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, and its potential is attributed to the presence of flavonoids, alkaloids, steroids, and saponins [21,2527].

Previously published review articles were primarily focused on the consequences of C. arvense’s spread as a perennial weed in European countries, as well as control measures [28]. Further, reviews are available on medicinal properties, phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the genus Cirsium, and different species [29]. So, in this review, we endeavored to study C. arvense’s ethnomedicinal uses, phytochemistry, and pharmacology. The primary goal of this review is to explore C. arvense as an economically significant plant that can provide a way to bioprospect this weed and open new doors for future research in different areas.


TAXONOMIC DESCRIPTION AND GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF C. ARVENSE

Herb, dioecious, perennial, up to 160 cm tall. Stem erect, unwinged, branched above. Leaves petiolate, petioles narrowly winged, lamina 3–30 × 1–6 cm, oblong to elliptic, margins plane to revolute, entire, spinulose, main spines 1–7 mm, abaxial faces glabrous to densely grey-tomentose, adaxial green, glabrous to thinly tomentose. Inflorescence capitulum, terminal, corymbose; involucre narrowly ovoid. Phyllaries imbricate, in 5–7 rows, lacking wings and scarious appendage. Corolla reddish purple or rarely white; female florets 1.6–2.4 cm; male florets 1.5–1.8 cm. Fruits achene, yellowish. Pappus bristles dirty white, 2.5–3.5 cm [19,30,31]. Taxonomical features of C. arvense are shown in Figure 1.

Cirsium arvense grows in diverse habitats (ranging from moist places to grasslands, mountain slopes, flooded lands, disturbed sites, etc.) at 100–4,300 m [31]. Its native range is Temperate Eurasia, Northwest Africa. It has been introduced into North America, South America, Africa, Europe, Asia, Australia, and other regions, as shown in Figure 2 [8].


TRADITIONAL USES OF C. ARVENSE

In light of existing literature, several studies have reported the ethnomedicinal and culinary uses of C. arvense. A brief overview of the ethnomedicinal uses of C. arvense has been depicted in Table 1.

Ethnomedicinal uses

Various ethnobotanical studies have recognized the therapeutic and health-promoting uses of the whole plant of C. arvense [32]. In North America, C. arvense (whole plant) is used as a remedy against cirrhosis, lipoma, liver cancer, and gout [33,34]. Further, a decoction of the plant is used for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders, hypertension, hemorrhage, lung troubles, epistaxis, hematemesis, ulcers, scabies, metrorrhagia, pyogenic infections, and various types of skin diseases [23,24,3539]. The infusion or extract of the whole plant is used for the cure of mouth infections by North American Indian tribals and is considered to be useful as an astringent, diuretic, and health-promoting tonic [21,27,40].

Also, root decoction is used as an anthelmintic, astringent, diuretic, tonic, and remedy against hepatic disorders and intestinal worms [23,41,42]. David [41] documented the use of syrup from the roots to alleviate cough, while root juice is used to cure diabetes and jaundice and against snake bites [34,4346]. The roots paste mixed with Amaranthus spinosus is given in case of indigestion [47]. Leaf juice and tea are employed for treating tuberculosis, piles, eye pain, skin-related problems, wounds, and urogenital diseases [41,44,45,48]. Subsequently, leaves paste is applied to heal boils [30]. Leaves are chewed to relieve toothache and sore throat because of their anti-inflammatory properties [21,27]. A mixture of the roots and leaves is used for oral disorders, toothache, diarrhea, dysentery, tuberculosis, and hepatic disorders [41,42,45,49]. The tincture of the leaves and flowers has been recommended against dermatitis [50].

Culinary uses

The foliage of C. arvense and aromatic seeds are used as food [37,53] due to their significant content of vitamins, minerals, and fibers [21,27]. The raw or cooked soft roots are eaten with other vegetables and used as drought food [54,55]. The peeled stem is cooked like Asparagus, while the leaves are used raw or cooked [54].

Figure 1. Salient botanical features of C. arvense. (Source: Patanjali Herbal Museum, Haridwar, India).

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PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF C. ARVENSE

Cirsium arvense contains carotenoids, alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, terpenoids, and glycosides [27,56]. Different flavonoids such as kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and phenolic acid like caftaric, protocatechuic, and neochlorogenic acid have been reported in C. arvense by Popova [57], Khan et al. [58] and Ashmita et al. [59] observed the presence of α-tocopherol, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, hispidulin, and tracin C. arvense. The plant also contains flavones (acacetin and apigenin), caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, enicin, protocatechualdehyde, rutin, stigmasterol, taraxasterol, and triterpenes [36,60,61]. The aerial parts and young inflorescence have alkaloids, choline, glucoside, and saponins [52,62]. Roots contain phytotoxic compounds, whereas leaves have flavones and cyanide-glycoside [60,61]. The C. arvense flower’s methanolic extract contains triterpenoids (α and β-amyrin), sterols (γ-sitosterol, stigmasterol), and olean-12-en-3-ol, acetate [63]. Some other constituents like 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid; mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester; 10-octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; 2-pentadecanone; 6,10,14-trimethyl,2H-1-benzopyran, 6,7-dimethoxy-2-2-dimethyl,3,5-ditert-butyl-4-hydroxyacetophenone, 6,7-dimethoxycoumarin, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-,methyl ester, citronellol, acacetin, arvense A-B, camphor, ciryneol C, dihydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavone 4′-glucoside, ergoline-8-carboxylic acid, 10-methoxy-methyl-,methyl ester, heneicosane, heptadecanoic acid, 16-methyl-,methyl ester, hexadecanoic acid, nonadecane, pectolinarigenin-7-O-glucopyranoside, phytol, and scopoletin have also been reported in C. arvense [64]. The chemical structures of some of the representative phytoconstituents are highlighted in Figure 3.

Figure 2. Map showing the geographical distribution of C. arvense (Source: https://www.gbif.org/).

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PHARMACOLOGICAL PROFILE OF C. ARVENSE

The plant contains many phytoconstituents that have shown potential towards various bacterial strains, cancer cells, fungi, and also against free radicals. The validation of ethnomedicinal information by utilizing evidence-based pharmacological studies is necessary. Toxicity studies should support biological activities to assure the safety and efficacy of herbal medicine. This weed is not much explored; only a few studies, like antimicrobial, antioxidant, and antiproliferative are available in light of existing literature.

Antioxidant activity

Antioxidants are the molecules that can scavenge free radicals or reactive oxygen species (ROS) like superoxide (O2), hydroxyl radical (OH), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and others. ROS are produced in a cell due to biochemical reactions and can adversely affect nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins, resulting in oxidative stress and multiple diseases [65]. Antioxidants are crucial for inhibiting oxidative reactions and removing ROS or neutralizing harmful effects of ROS in the body [66]. In this context, the crude extract from leaves, flowers, and roots of C. arvense displayed in vitro antioxidant activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical, superoxide anion radical, and also in ferric reducing antioxidant power assay [67]. The ethanol extract of C. arvense aerial parts exhibited antioxidant activity in ferrous ion (Fe++) chelating assay, DPPH, H2O2, O2 and nitric oxide radical scavenging assays with IC50 values of 92, 118, 142, 110, and 100 μg/ml, respectively [27]. On the other hand, the aqueous extract from C. arvense leaves exhibited antioxidant activity with total antioxidant status of 2.74 m/ml [68]. The crude methanol extract of C. arvense inflorescence and leaves and its fractions (chloroform, diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol) were also evaluated for antioxidant activity. With a total antioxidant status of 1.76–2.69 mM/l, all fractions demonstrated antioxidant activity. The inflorescences’ butanol and leaves’ ethyl acetate fractions were observed to be the most active [69]. Cirsium arvense is reported to have antioxidant potential, but further studies (in vitro and in vivo) are warranted to validate this potential.

Table 1. Ethnomedicinal uses of C. arvense.

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Figure 3. Representative chemical composition of C. arvense.

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Antiproliferative activity

In vitro antiproliferative activity of different extracts (chloroform, n-hexane, aqueous methanol, and water) of C. arvense herb and roots (10 μg/ml) was evaluated against A431 (skin epidermoid carcinoma), HeLa (cervix epithelial adenocarcinoma), and MCF7 (breast epithelial adenocarcinoma) cells using 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. All fractions exhibited antiproliferative activity with 2.88%–21.15% inhibition against all tested cell lines [70].

Antimicrobial activity

Different extracts of C. arvense plant parts have been evaluated by various researchers for antimicrobial activity. The aqueous extract of C. arvense leaves exhibited antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) 12.5 mg/ml), Bacillus subtilis (MIC 50 mg/ml), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MIC 50 mg/ml), and Candida albicans (MIC 1.56 mg/ml) [68]. Similarly, chloroform, n-butanol, n-hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions (100 μl) of C. arvense methanol extract were evaluated against Gram positive (S. aureus and Micrococcus luteus), Gram negative bacterial strains (Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp. and P. aeruginosa) and fungus (Aspergillus niger). The chloroform fraction was observed to be most active against S. aureus with an inhibition zone diameter (IZD)15 mm, followed by Enterobacter sp. (IZD 14 mm), M. luteus (IZD 13 mm), E. coli (IZD 10 mm), and others [21]. The ethanolic extract (200, 250, and 500 μg/disc) from C. arvense aerial parts was evaluated against Streptococcus pyogenes, S. aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Shigella boydii, Shigella sonnei, Shigella flexneri, Streptococcus agalactiae, E. coli and Enterococcus faecalis. The extract at 500 μg/disc inhibited all bacterial strains except S. epidermidis, S. agalactiae, and E. faecalis, where maximum activity was observed towards S. pyogenes (13.6 mm) [71].

The compounds hispidulin, tracin, 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, α-tocopherol, and luteolin (1,000 μg/ml) from the C. arvense were screened for anti-microbial activity against bacteria (E. coli, B. subtilis, S. flexneri, S. aureus, Salmonella typhi, and P. aeruginosa) and fungi (C. albicans, C. glabrata, Trichophyton longifusus, Aspergillus flavus, Fusarium solani, and Microsporum canis). All tested compounds showed activity against tested microbial strains with IZD ranging between 9 and 34 mm. Tracin was observed to be most effective against B. subtilis. In contrast, luteolin and α-tocopherol were effective against M. canis with IZD 13–36 mm, whereas hispidulin was highly active against F. solani. Ashmita et al. [59] also observed the antimicrobial activity of compounds arvense A-B. All these studies support the antimicrobial potential C. arvense; however, most studies have only presented qualitative data, and quantitative studies with MIC are still required.

Mechanistic insights into antibacterial potential

Antibiotic resistance has grown to be a serious global concern. Drug-resistant infections are mainly brought on by the improper use and overuse of antibiotics [72]. Antibacterial drugs disrupt bacterial membranes and inhibit DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis [73]. Bacterial strains are constantly devising new mechanisms through many processes to adapt and withstand antibiotics’ lethal or biostatic effects [74]. Efflux pump (groups of transporter proteins) hyperactivity contributes to drug resistance; it extrudes drugs from cells to the external environment and reduces the antibiotic concentration inside [7578]. Figure 4 displays antibiotic resistance mechanisms and a suggested strategy (based on existing literature) accentuating the antibacterial activity of C. arvense’s phytoconstituents.

The enzymatic resistance mechanism involves a range of bacterial enzymes generated against distinct antibiotics, which cause structural modifications of antibiotics by hydrolysis or transferring functional groups, decreasing their efficiency [78]. In addition, bacteria acquire resistance via porin channel impairment (outer membrane protein alteration), thereby reducing the uptake of antibiotics [76,78]. The mutation in bacterial DNA and biofilm formation can also confer antimicrobial resistance [73,76,78,79].

The utilization of herbal remedies against bacterial strains resistant to antibiotics has recently grown. Many plants possess antibacterial chemicals that can work alone or with antibiotics [80]. Likewise, to other medicinal plants, C. arvense aerial parts contain antibacterial compounds like hispidulin, luteolin, and tracin, which might help manage antibiotic resistance. Additionally, acacetin, apigenin, and citronellol are the active constituents observed in C. arvense, have already been reported in the literature as antimicrobials [8183]. Therefore, these compounds from C. arvense, alone or in combination with antibiotics, can manage drug resistance by inhibiting hyperactivity of the efflux pump, drug-inactivating enzymes, cell wall protein alteration, DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.

Toxicity study

The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. arvense showed toxicity against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) with LC50 51 μg/ml in comparison to standard vincristine sulfate (LC50 0.44 μg/ml) [71]. More in vitro, in vivo, and clinical studies are required to assess the toxicity of this weed, as it is critical to focus research on the plant’s safety and efficacy to use it adequately.

Figure 4. Mechanistic basis of antibacterial action of C. arvense (Created using Biorender.com).

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BIOPROSPECTING OF C. ARVENSE

Cirsium arvense is a widespread weed, but its potential for bioprospecting was not explicitly addressed. Despite being seen as an invasive plant in agricultural fields, C. arvense extracts have strong antioxidant properties, making them a viable source of antioxidants [67]. Its antimicrobial activity has also been investigated; tracin, hispidulin, and luteolin have antibacterial and antifungal effects [58]. Iranian C. arvense extracts displayed antibacterial efficacy against various bacterial strains [40]. Cirsium arvense was employed to generate silver nanoparticles with a high biological value and better E. coli inhibition activity [84]. Diverse phytoconstituents were responsible for the synthesis and biological activity of plant-mediated nanoparticles, as evidenced by several reports [8589]. Therefore, C. arvense’s varied phytocomposition can be used in the future. However, in Tasmania, C. arvense root and foliage extracts prevented the germination and growth of several plant species, which may make it difficult for pasture and crop species to establish in C. arvense-infested environments [90]. Although its weeding potential may restrict its uses, but the biological potential of this opens up a new avenue for bioprospecting.


CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Cirsium arvense is a globally distributed weed that grows in various habitats. Ethnomedicinally, the plant is employed against gastrointestinal ailments, hypertension, bleeding, metrorrhagia, scabies, pyogenic infections, ulcers, and skin infections. Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, quercetin-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, hispidulin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, luteolin-5-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, enicin, rutin, stigmasterol, and acacetin represent diverse phytocomposition of this weed. The current review study highlighted antioxidant, antibacterial, and antiproliferative activities. The major limitation of the antimicrobial studies is that researchers did not reported MIC, as IZD evaluation is only a preliminary study. Cirsium arvense extracts’ antiproliferative ability against HeLa, A43, and MCF7 cell lines was evaluated, but vast research is still necessary. Although C. arvense has been utilized in various ethnomedicines, its pharmacological potential has yet to be thoroughly investigated, especially its toxicity (LC50 51 μg/ml).


AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

This research was supported by the Ministry of Ayush, Government of India, under Ayurswasthya Yojana.


CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors report no financial or any other conflicts of interest in this work.


ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included in this research article.


PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


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53. Rai Y. A color handbook of flowering & medicinal plants. New Delhi, India: Biotech Books; 2015.

54. Shah R. Edible plants of North West Himalaya (Uttarakhand). Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra pal Singh; 2015.

55. Chauhan PP. Ethnobotanical studies of wild edible plants used by ethnic people in Pabbar valley, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Worldwide Int J Multidiscip Res. 2022;8(04):5–10. CrossRef

56. Akhtar N, Mirza, B. Phytochemical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 61 medicinal plant species. Arabian J Chem. 2018;11:1223–35. CrossRef

57. Popova YV. The pharmacognostic study Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and C. vulgare (Savi) Ten. Flora of Ukraine [Doctoral Thesis]. Zaporizhia, Ukraine: Zaporizhzhia State Medical University; 2020.

58. Khan ZUH, Khan S, Chen Y, Wan P. In vitro antimicrobial activity of the chemical constituents of Cirsium arvense (L). Scop. J Med Plant Res. 2013;7(25):1894–8. CrossRef

59. Ashmita P, Singh L, Kumar D, Antil R, Dahiya P. Cirsium arvense: a multi-potent weed. Ann Biol. 2020;36:442–7.

60. Asolkar LV, Kakkar KK, Chakre O. Second supplement to, glossary of Indian medicinal plants with active principles (Part 1). New Delhi, India: National Institute of Science Communication (CSIR); 1992.

61. Nadkarni KM. Indian materia medica, 3rd ed. Mumbai, India: Popular Prakashan, vol. 1; 1996.

62. Li TSC. Chinese and related North American: herbs, phyto-pharmacology and therapeutic values, 2nd ed. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press; 2009.

63. Ferdosi MF, Khan IH, Javaid A, Fardosi MF. GC-MS examination of methanolic extract of Cirsium arvense flower. Pak J Weed Sci Res. 2021;27(2):173–80.

64. Banaras S, Javaid A, Shoaib A, Ahmed E. Antifungal activity of Cirsium arvense extracts against phytopathogenic fungus Macrophomina phaseolina. Planta Daninha. 2017;35:1–10. CrossRef

65. Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem. 2015;30(1):11–26. CrossRef

66. Gulcin I. Antioxidants and antioxidant methods: an updated overview. Arch Toxicol. 2020;94(3):651–715. CrossRef

67. Demirtas I, Tufekci AR, Yaglioglu AS, Elmastas M. Studies on the antioxidant and antiproliferative potentials of Cirsium arvense subsp. vestitum. J Food Biochem. 2017;41(1):e12299. CrossRef

68. Nazaruk J, Czechowska SK, Markiewicz R, Borawska MH. Polyphenolic compounds and in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of aqueous extracts from leaves of some Cirsium species. Nat Prod Res. 2008;22(18):1583–8. CrossRef

69. Nazaruk J. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Cirsium five species from North-East region of Poland. Fitoterapia. 2008;79(3):194–6. CrossRef

70. Csupor-Löffler B, Hajdú Z, Réthy B, Zupkó I, Máthé I, Rédei T, et al. Antiproliferative activity of Hungarian Asteraceae species against human cancer cell lines. Part II. Phytother Res. 2009;23(8):109–15. CrossRef

71. Hossain ML, Monjur-Al-Hossain ASM, Saha S, Sadhu SK. Assessment of biological activity on Cirsium arvense L. Algerian J Nat Prod. 2017;5:417–26. CrossRef

72. WHO. Antimicrobial resistance. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO; 2023. 

73. Balkrishna A, Rohela A, Kumar A, Kumar A, Arya V, Thakur P, et al. Mechanistic insight into antimicrobial and antioxidant potential of Jasminum species: a herbal approach for disease management. Plants. 2021;10(6):1–25. CrossRef

74. Sekyere JO, Asante J. Emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi: advances in the era of genomics. Future Microbiol. 2018;13(2):241–62. CrossRef

75. Walsh C. Molecular mechanisms that confer antibacterial drug resistance. Nature. 2000;406(6797):775–81. CrossRef

76. Tenover FC. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am J Infect Control. 2006;119(6):S3–10. CrossRef

77. Khameneh B, Diab R, Ghazvini K, Bazzaz, BSF. Breakthroughs in bacterial resistance mechanisms and the potential ways to combat them. Microb Pathog. 2016;95:32–42. CrossRef

78. Kongkham B, Prabakaran D, Puttaswamy H. Opportunities and challenges in managing antibiotic resistance in bacteria using plant secondary metabolites. Fitoterapia. 2020;147:104762. CrossRef

79. Levy SB. The challenge of antibiotic resistance. Sci Am. 1998;278(3):46–53. CrossRef

80. Eldin AB, Ezzat M, Afifi M, Sabry O, Caprioli G. Herbal medicine: the magic way crouching microbial resistance. Nat Prod Res. 2023; 37: 1–10. CrossRef

81. Nayaka HB, Londonkar RL, Umesh MK, Tukappa A. Antibacterial attributes of apigenin, isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Int J Bacteriol. 2014;2014:175851. CrossRef

82. Lopez-Romero JC, González-Ríos H, Borges A, Simões M. Antibacterial effects and mode of action of selected essential oils components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:795435. CrossRef

83. Sadiq MB, Tarning J, Aye Cho TZ, Anal AK. Antibacterial activities and possible modes of action of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Molecules. 2017;22(1):47. CrossRef

84. Barbinta-Patrascu ME, Ungureanu C, Besliu D, Lazea-Stoyanova A, Iosif, L. Bio-active nanomaterials phyto-generated from weed herb Cirsium arvense. Optoelectron Adv Mater Rapid Commun. 2020;14(9-10):459–65.

85. Balkrishna A, Kumar A, Arya V, Rohela A, Verma R, Nepovimova E, et al. Phytoantioxidant functionalized nanoparticles: a green approach to combat nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021;2021:1–20. CrossRef

86. Khatana C, Kumar A, Alruways MW, Khan N, Thakur N, Kumar D, et al. Antibacterial potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.: a green approach to combat drug resistance. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):1907–14. CrossRef

87. Dhatwalia J, Kumari A, Chauhan A, Mansi K, Thakur S, Saini RV, et al. Rubus ellipticus sm. Fruit extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles: a green approach for dye degradation and biomedical applications. Materials. 2022;15(10):3470. CrossRef

88. Thakur N, Thakur N, Chauhan P, Kumar K, Jeet K, Kumar A, et al. Futuristic role of nanoparticles for treatment of COVID-19. Biomater Polym Horiz. 2022;1(2):1–22. CrossRef

89. Thakur N, Thakur N, Kumar K, Kumar A. Tinospora cordifolia mediated eco-friendly synthesis of cobalt doped TiO2 NPs for degradation of organic methylene blue dye. Mater Today: Proc. 2023. CrossRef

90. All GMB. The allelopathic activity of californian thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) in Tasmania. Weed Res. 1975;15(2):77–81. CrossRef

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54. Shah R. Edible plants of North West Himalaya (Uttarakhand). Dehradun, India: Bishen Singh Mahendra pal Singh; 2015.

55. Chauhan PP. Ethnobotanical studies of wild edible plants used by ethnic people in Pabbar valley, District Shimla, Himachal Pradesh. Worldwide Int J Multidiscip Res. 2022;8(04):5–10. doi: https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/S7UKJ

56. Akhtar N, Mirza, B. Phytochemical analysis and comprehensive evaluation of antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of 61 medicinal plant species. Arabian J Chem. 2018;11:1223–35. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.arabjc.2015.01.013

57. Popova YV. The pharmacognostic study Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. and C. vulgare (Savi) Ten. Flora of Ukraine [Doctoral Thesis]. Zaporizhia, Ukraine: Zaporizhzhia State Medical University; 2020.

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69. Nazaruk J. Antioxidant activity and total phenolic content in Cirsium five species from North-East region of Poland. Fitoterapia. 2008;79(3):194–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2007.11.008

70. Csupor-Löffler B, Hajdú Z, Réthy B, Zupkó I, Máthé I, Rédei T, et al. Antiproliferative activity of Hungarian Asteraceae species against human cancer cell lines. Part II. Phytother Res. 2009;23(8):109–15. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/ptr.2755

71. Hossain ML, Monjur-Al-Hossain ASM, Saha S, Sadhu SK. Assessment of biological activity on Cirsium arvense L. Algerian J Nat Prod. 2017;5:417–26. doi: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.824566

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74. Sekyere JO, Asante J. Emerging mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi: advances in the era of genomics. Future Microbiol. 2018;13(2):241–62. doi: https://doi.org/10.2217/fmb-2017-0172

75. Walsh C. Molecular mechanisms that confer antibacterial drug resistance. Nature. 2000;406(6797):775–81. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/35021219

76. Tenover FC. Mechanisms of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. Am J Infect Control. 2006;119(6):S3–10. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajic.2006.05.219

77. Khameneh B, Diab R, Ghazvini K, Bazzaz, BSF. Breakthroughs in bacterial resistance mechanisms and the potential ways to combat them. Microb Pathog. 2016;95:32–42.

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78. Kongkham B, Prabakaran D, Puttaswamy H. Opportunities and challenges in managing antibiotic resistance in bacteria using plant secondary metabolites. Fitoterapia. 2020;147:104762. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fitote.2020.104762

79. Levy SB. The challenge of antibiotic resistance. Sci Am. 1998;278(3):46–53. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/scientificamerican0398-46

80. Eldin AB, Ezzat M, Afifi M, Sabry O, Caprioli G. Herbal medicine: the magic way crouching microbial resistance. Nat Prod Res. 2023; 37: 1–10.

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81. Nayaka HB, Londonkar RL, Umesh MK, Tukappa A. Antibacterial attributes of apigenin, isolated from Portulaca oleracea L. Int J Bacteriol. 2014;2014:175851. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/175851

82. Lopez-Romero JC, González-Ríos H, Borges A, Simões M. Antibacterial effects and mode of action of selected essential oils components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2015;2015:795435. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/795435

83. Sadiq MB, Tarning J, Aye Cho TZ, Anal AK. Antibacterial activities and possible modes of action of Acacia nilotica (L.) Del. against multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Salmonella. Molecules. 2017;22(1):47. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules22010047

84. Barbinta-Patrascu ME, Ungureanu C, Besliu D, Lazea-Stoyanova A, Iosif, L. Bio-active nanomaterials phyto-generated from weed herb Cirsium arvense. Optoelectron Adv Mater Rapid Commun. 2020;14(9-10):459–65.

85. Balkrishna A, Kumar A, Arya V, Rohela A, Verma R, Nepovimova E, et al. Phytoantioxidant functionalized nanoparticles: a green approach to combat nanoparticle-induced oxidative stress. Oxid Med Cell Longev. 2021;2021:1–20. doi: https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/3155962

86. Khatana C, Kumar A, Alruways MW, Khan N, Thakur N, Kumar D, et al. Antibacterial potential of zinc oxide nanoparticles synthesized using Aloe vera (L.) Burm. f.: a green approach to combat drug resistance. J Pure Appl Microbiol. 2021;15(4):1907–14. doi: https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.15.4.12

87. Dhatwalia J, Kumari A, Chauhan A, Mansi K, Thakur S, Saini RV, et al. Rubus ellipticus sm. Fruit extract mediated zinc oxide nanoparticles: a green approach for dye degradation and biomedical applications. Materials. 2022;15(10):3470. doi: https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15103470

88. Thakur N, Thakur N, Chauhan P, Kumar K, Jeet K, Kumar A, et al. Futuristic role of nanoparticles for treatment of COVID-19. Biomater Polym Horiz. 2022;1(2):1–22. doi: https://doi.org/10.37819/bph.001.02.0166

89. Thakur N, Thakur N, Kumar K, Kumar A. Tinospora cordifolia mediated eco-friendly synthesis of cobalt doped TiO2 NPs for degradation of organic methylene blue dye. Mater Today: Proc. 2023. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.matpr.2023.01.253

90. All GMB. The allelopathic activity of californian thistle (Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop.) in Tasmania. Weed Res. 1975;15(2):77–81. doi: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3180.1975.tb01102.x

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