Prevalence of antibiotic resident bacteria in intensive care units at Hodeida City, Yemen

Sameer A. Alkubati Sultan A. M. Saghir Abdullah Alhariri Mahmoud Al-Areefi Khaled M. Al-Sayaghi Mohammed Alsabri Sulaiman M. Alnaimat Bander S. Albagawi   

Open Access   

Published:  Jun 22, 2022


Hospital-acquired infection in intensive care units (ICUs) is considered a major healthcare problem that has a detrimental effect on the patients through increasing their morbidity, mortality, and hospitalization rates. Environmental surfaces contamination plays a major role in the transmission of microorganisms and causes such infections. This study was designed to scrutinize the frequency and antimicrobial pattern of the most common bacteria in ICUs in hospitals in Hodeida, Yemen. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted in six hospitals in Hodeida City, Yemen, between March and June 2019. A total of 240 samples collected from 6 hospitals were cultured and examined, including 142 (59.2%) samples that yielded positive bacterial growth. Surfaces with the highest contamination rate were door handles (76.5%), followed by IV holders (71.4%) and medical tables (66.7%). From the findings, Staphylococcus aureus had the highest frequency rate (37.2%), whereas Proteus spp. showed the lowest frequency rate (2.8%). Gramnegative isolates demonstrated higher resistance compared with Gram-positive isolates. Moreover, it was observed that Escherichia coli isolates were resistant to the majority of the tested antibiotics. The high prevalence of environmental bacteria in ICUs was alarming. Antibiotic resistance was extremely high, which demonstrates the need to develop and implement surveillance programs in these hospitals to address the causes of antibacterial-resistant pathogens.

Keyword:     ICU environmental surface bacteria contamination antibiotic resistance.


Alkubati SA, Saghir SAM, Alhariri A, Al-Areefi M, AlSayaghi KM, Alsabri M, Alnaimat SM, Albagawi BS. Prevalence of antibiotic resident bacteria in intensive care units at Hodeida City, Yemen. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2022. Online First.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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