Review Article | Volume: 8, Issue: 5, May, 2018

Pharmacological potentials and toxicity effects of Excoecaria agallocha

Eric Wei Chiang Chan Nozomi Oshiro Mio Kezuka Norimi Kimura Karin Baba Hung Tuck Chan   

Open Access   

Published:  May 30, 2018

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2018.8523

Excoecaria agallocha is commonly found on the landward side of mangroves. Belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae, trees are deciduous with leaves turning orange or red before shedding. The species produces white latex that is toxic, causing skin blistering and temporary blindness. The toxic E. agallocha latex which causes skin irritation and blistering has been attributed to three groups of diterpene esters of the daphnane and tigliane types. Classes of compounds of E. agallocha include diterpenoids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, sterols, tannins, and triterpenoids. The most common chemical constituents are diterpenoids which are of the labdane, artisane, beyerane, daphnane, tigliane, isopimarane and kaurane types. Commonly isolated diterpenoids include agallochaexcoerins, agallochaols, agallochins, excoeagallochaols, and excoecarins. Pharmacological properties of E. agallocha include antioxidant, antibacterial, antiviral, larvicidal, hedgehog signalling inhibition, anticancer, anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. Other bioactivities include anti-ulcer, anti-diabetic, non-specific immunity, disease resistance, sedative, gastro-protective, anti-allergic and anti-hyperglycemic effects. A case report of a 15-year-old boy from Sri Lanka, splashed with a toxic latex of E. agallocha and admitted to the General Hospital in Matara, is presented.

Keyword:     Excoecaria agallocha Phytochemistry Pharmacology Diterpenoids Toxic Latex.


Chan EWC, Oshiro N, Kezuka M, Kimura N, Baba K, Chan HT. Pharmacological potentials and toxicity effects of Excoecaria agallocha. J App Pharm Sci, 2018; 8(05): 166-173.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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