Ethnomedical uses of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. and Thomson in indigenous traditional medicine among Indonesia ethnic groups

Nuning Rahmawati Ika Yanti M Sholikhah Rohmat Mujahid Yuli Widiyastuti Agung Endro Nugroho Abdul Rohman   

Open Access   

Published:  Jun 14, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2024.183534
Abstract

Cananga odorata, commonly known as ylang-ylang, is an evergreen perennial tropical tree belonging to the Annonaceae family, which is traditionally and scientifically reported to have various pharmacological activities. This indigenous medicine study was carried out to document the traditional usage of C. odorata for medicinal reasons by Indonesian ethnic groups. This is one of numerous initiatives aimed at preserving indigenous knowledge and medical practices maintained by the community. Data were acquired during 2015 and 2017 through in-depth interviews with selected traditional healers from each ethnic group throughout 34 Indonesian provinces, who were chosen using a purposive sampling approach based on inclusion criteria. The information gathered includes the demographic data of healers, medicinal plants used, potions, and their applications for health purposes. Following the completion of the interview with the informant, specimens of medicinal plants were collected. Data quantification was accomplished by examining the value of plant parts and doing a simple ranking analysis for multihealth purposes. This study revealed 42 traditional applications of C. odorata by 36 traditional healers from 28 ethnic groups in 16 provinces to overcome 18 diseases. Cananga odorata was primarily obtained from the woodland instead of the house garden and other environments. Skin disease was identified as the most prevalent indication of C. odorata, in agreement with the most commonly employed administration method, the external route. Leaves became the foremost prominent plant part utilized by healers. This study emphasized the significant role of traditional healers in healing various illnesses with C. odorata and the variations in C. odorata ethnomedical usage as a traditional remedy in Indonesia. Nonetheless, cultivating initiatives should be started as more than 60% of identified C. odorata has yet to be grown. The study’s findings are likely to benefit various stakeholders, serve as baseline data for further studies on the efficacy and safety of C. odorata, and contribute to efforts for developing health products that employ C. odorata.


Keyword:     Cananga odorata Annonaceae traditional healer ethnopharmacology cultivation effort


Citation:

Nuning Rahmawati, Ika Yanti M Sholikhah, Rohmat Mujahid, Yuli Widiyastuti, Agung Endro Nugroho, Abdul Rohman. Ethnomedical uses of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. and Thomson in indigenous traditional medicine among Indonesia ethnic groups. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2024. Online First. http://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2024.183534

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text

Reference

1. Tan LTH, Lee LH, Yin WF, Chan CK, Abdul Kadir H, Chan KG, et al. Traditional uses, phytochemistry, and bioactivities of Cananga odorata (Ylang-Ylang). Evid-Based Complement Altern Med ECAM. 2015;2015:896314. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/896314

2. Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson [Internet]. 2024 [cited 2024 Feb 20]. Available from: https://www.worldfloraonline.org/taxon/wfo-0000583386

3. Kaewpetch T, Pratummang A, Suwarak S, Wongphan P, Promhuad K, Leelaphiwat P, et al. Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata) essential oils with flora odorants enhanced active function of biodegradable polyester films produced by extrusion. Food Biosci. 2023 Feb;51:102284. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fbio.2022.102284

4. Propantoko H, Mansur I, Wulandari AS. Study of cultivation traditional technical and production Java Kenanga (Cananga odorata f. macrophylla) in Blitar. J Trop Silviculture. 2020;11(3):177-82. https://doi.org/10.29244/j-siltrop.11.3.177-182

5. Laftouhi A, Eloutassi N, Ech-Chihbi E, Rais Z, Abdellaoui A, Taleb A, et al. The impact of environmental stress on the secondary metabolites and the chemical compositions of the essential oils from some medicinal plants used as food supplements. Sustainability. 2023 May 10;15(10):7842. https://doi.org/10.3390/su15107842

6. Pant P, Pandey S, Dall'Acqua S. The influence of environmental conditions on secondary metabolites in medicinal plants: a literature review. Chem Biodivers. 2021 Nov;18(11):e2100345. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202100345

7. Ncube B, Finnie JF, Van Staden J. Quality from the field: the impact of environmental factors as quality determinants in medicinal plants. South Afr J Bot. 2012 Sep;82:11-20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sajb.2012.05.009

8. Wangchuk P, Olsen A. Risk factors for the sustainability of medicinal plants in Bhutan. Asian Med. 2010;6(1):123-36. https://doi.org/10.1163/157342110X606897

9. Peyron L, Acchiardi J, Pellerin P. Abnormal presence of hexylene glycol in commercial volatile oils of Vetiveria zizanoides and Cananga odorata. Plantes Med Phytother. 1975;9(3):192-203.

10. Mallavarapu GR, Gurudutt KN, Syamasundar KV. Ylang-Ylang (Cananga odorata) oils. In: Essential oils in food preservation, flavor and safety [Internet]. Elsevier;2016 [cited 2024 Feb 20]:865-73. Available from: https://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/B9780124166417000997 https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-416641-7.00099-7

11. Khe Jiea C, Fuloria S, Subrimanyan V, Sekar M, V. Sathasivam K, Kayarohanam S, et al. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of Cananga odorata extract. Res J Pharm Technol. 2022 Mar 24;1230-4. https://doi.org/10.52711/0974-360X.2022.00205

12. Panthawong A, Nararak J, Jhaiaun P, Sukkanon C, Chareonviriyaphap T. Synergistic behavioral response effect of mixtures of Andrographis paniculata, Cananga odorata, and Vetiveria zizanioides against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Insects. 2023 Feb 3;14(2):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/insects14020155

13. Niaci S. Phytochemical properties of methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cananga odorata flowers and their pharmacological activities. J Med Pharm Allied Sci. 2021 Nov 15;10(6):3874-7. https://doi.org/10.22270/jmpas.V10I6.1608

14. Zhang N, Wang ST, Yao L. Inhalation of Cananga odorata essential oil relieves anxiety behaviors in autism-like rats via regulation of serotonin and dopamine metabolism. J Integr Med. 2023 Mar;21(2):205-14. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.joim.2023.01.006

15. Sholikhah EN. Indonesian medicinal plants as sources of secondary metabolites for pharmaceutical industry. J Thee Med Sci Berk Ilmu Kedokt. 2016 Nov 10;48(04):226-39. https://doi.org/10.19106/JMedSci004804201606

16. Aswandi A, Kholibrina CR. Ethnomedicine of forest's essential oils for respiratory and cardiovascular treatments in Northern Sumatra. In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 2021;012073. https://doi.org/10.1088/1755-1315/914/1/012073

17. Putri AM, Muham AO, Anggraini S, Maisarmah S, Yulis PAR. Analisis kualitatif kandungan bunga kenanga (Cananga odorata) secara fitokimia dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol. J Res Educ Chem. 2020 May 28;2(1):43. https://doi.org/10.25299/jrec.2020.vol2(1).4783

18. Borgonetti V, López V, Galeotti N. Ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. f. & Thomson) essential oil reduced neuropathic-pain and associated anxiety symptoms in mice. J Ethnopharmacol. 2022 Aug;294:115362. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2022.115362

19. Mani S, Ganie RA, Sari DK, Sari LM, Rachmawati M, Muhamad N. Subacute toxicity yellow flower extract (Cananga odorata) on histopathology of white rat heart (Rattus norvegicus). Sumat Med J. 2023 May 15;6(2):46-52. https://doi.org/10.32734/sumej.v6i2.11931

20. Adiyasa MR, Meiyanti M. Pemanfaatan obat tradisional di Indonesia: distribusi dan faktor demografis yang berpengaruh. J Biomedika Dan Kesehat. 2021 Sep 30;4(3):130-8. https://doi.org/10.18051/JBiomedKes.2021.v4.130-138

21. Obat BP, Indonesia MR. Peraturan Badan Pengawas Obat Dan Makanan nomor 25 tahun 2023 tentang kriteria dan tata laksana registrasi obat bahan alam. 2023.

22. Soedarsono R, Sangat-Roemantyo H. Jamu as traditional medicine in Java, Indonesia. S Pac Study. 2002;23(1):1-10.

23. Handayani H. Traditional to rational and modern phytopharmaca. In: Proceeding of Surabaya International Health Conference. Surabaya; 2017.

24. Sumarni W, Sudarmin S, Sumarti SS. The scientification of jamu: a study of Indonesian's traditional medicine. In: Journal of Physics: Conference Series. 2019;1321(3):032057. https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1321/3/032057

25. Badan Penelitian dan Pengembangan Kesehatan Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Laporan Nasional RISKESDAS 2018. Jakarta, Indonesia: Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia; 2019.

26. Rifka N, Haerawati I. Factors associated with the use of traditional health services in Indonesia: a secondary analysis of the Indonesian basic health research. Makara J Health Res. 2023;27(1):36-40.

27. Sundararajan R, Alakiu R, Ponticiello M, Birch G, Kisigo G, Okello E, et al. Understanding traditional healer utilisation for hypertension care using the Andersen model: a qualitative study in Mwanza, Tanzania. Glob Public Health. 2023 Jan 2;18(1):2191687. https://doi.org/10.1080/17441692.2023.2191687

28. Solera-Deuchar L, Mussa MI, Ali SA, Haji HJ, McGovern P. Establishing views of traditional healers and biomedical practitioners on collaboration in mental health care in Zanzibar: a qualitative pilot study. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2020 Dec;14(1):1. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13033-020-0336-1

29. Dianasari W, Nadjib M. Supervision of traditional medicines containing undeclared substance: analysis of Indonesian FDA monitoring data for 2012-2021. J Indones Health Policy Adm. 2022 Jul 10;7(1):196. https://doi.org/10.7454/ihpa.v7i1.5858

30. Bag M. Industrialization: a threat to the indigenous knowledge of ethno-medicine. Acme Intellects Int J Res Manag Soc Sci Technol. 2017;20(20):1-13.

31. Semenya SS, Maroyi A. Source, harvesting, conservation status, threats and management of indigenous plant used for respiratory infections and related symptoms in the Limpopo Province, South Africa. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers. 2019 Mar 3;20(3):789-810. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d200325

32. Roberson E. Medicinal plant at risk. Nature's pharmacy, our treasure chest: Why we must conserve our natural heritage. Center for Biological Diversity. 2008.

33. Perangin-angin RBB, Nababan R, Siahaan PG. Perlindungan pengetahuan tradisional sebagai hak konstitusional di Indonesia. J Konstitusi. 2020 May 6;17(1):178. https://doi.org/10.31078/jk1718

34. Susanti D, Rahmawati N, Sholikhah IYM, Mujahid R, Subositi D, Widodo H, et al. Medicinal plants utilized for fitness disorders treatment by ethnic groups in Papua and West Papua Province, Indonesia. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2023;13(9):149-60. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2023.140135

35. Rahmawati N, Mustofa FI, Haryanti S. Diversity of medicinal plants utilized by To Manui ethnic of Central Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers. 2020 Jan 5;21(1):375-92. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210145

36. Alemneh D. Ethnobotanical study of medicinal plants used for the treatment of domestic animal diseases in Yilmana Densa and Quarit Districts, West Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, Ethiopia. Ethnobot Res Appl. 2021 Oct 17;22:1-18. https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/6615666

37. Ayyanar M, Ignacimuthu S. Ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants commonly used by Kani tribals in Tirunelveli hills of Western Ghats, India. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 Apr;134(3):851-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2011.01.029

38. Wulanyani NMS, Wahyuni KM, Bajirani MPD, Immanuel AS. Why do people in bali meet traditional healer? In: Annual International Conference on Social Sciences and Humanities (AICOSH 2020). Yogyakarta, Indonesia: Atlantis Press; 2020. https://doi.org/10.2991/assehr.k.200728.029

39. Liverpool J, Alexander R, Johnson M, Ebba EK, Francis S, Liverpool C. Western medicine and traditional healers: partners in the fight against HIV/AIDS. J Natl Med Assoc. 2004;96(6):822.

40. Audet CM, Gobbo E, Sack DE, Clemens EM, Ngobeni S, Mkansi M, et al. Traditional healers use of personal protective equipment: a qualitative study in rural South Africa. BMC Health Serv Res. 2020 Dec;20(1):655. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12913-020-05515-9

41. Rai P, Khawas V. Traditional knowledge system in disaster risk reduction: Exploration, acknowledgement and proposition. Jàmbá J Disaster Risk Stud. 2019 Jun 4;11(1):1-7. https://doi.org/10.4102/jamba.v11i1.484

42. Shaw R, Takeuchi Y, Uy N, Sharma A. Indigenous knowledge disaster risk reduction. Kyoto, Japan: Kyoto University; 2008.

43. Oktarlina RZ, Tarigan A, Carolia N, Utami ER. Hubungan Pengetahuan Keluarga dengan Penggunaan Obat Tradisional di Desa Nunggalrejo Kecamatan Punggur Kabupaten Lampung Tengah. Jk Unila Jurnal Kedokteran Universitas Lampung. 2(1):42-5.

44. Logiel A, Jørs E, Akugizibwe P, Ahnfeldt-Mollerup P. Prevalence and socio-economic factors affecting the use of traditional medicine among adults of Katikekile Subcounty, Moroto District, Uganda. Afr Health Sci. 2021 Sep 27;21(3):1410-7. https://doi.org/10.4314/ahs.v21i3.52

45. Baratti-Mayer D, Baba Daou M, Gayet-Ageron A, Jeannot E, Pittet-Cuénod B. Sociodemographic characteristics of traditional healers and their knowledge of Noma: a descriptive survey in three regions of mali. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2019 Nov 19;16(22):4587. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph16224587

46. Raina N, Rani R, Thakur VK, Gupta M. New insights in topical drug delivery for skin disorders: from a nanotechnological perspective. ACS Omega. 2023 Jun 6;8(22):19145-67. https://doi.org/10.1021/acsomega.2c08016

47. Sahala MA, Soedarman S, Rizky LA, Natanegara AP, Advani MS, Sungkar S. The prevalence of skin diseases and its association with hygiene behavior and level of education in a Pesantren, Jakarta Selatan 2013. EJournal Kedokt Indones. 2016 Sep 19;4(2):119-24. https://doi.org/10.23886/ejki.4.6288.119-24

48. Khoiriyah K, Sukraeny N, Alfiyanti D, Yuniati R, Syahputra MY, Ayu R. Upaya Preventif Dan Kuratif Masalah Kesehatan Kulit berbasis evidence based practice Pemanfaatan Bahan Alam. f. Urnal Inov Dan Pengabd Masy Indonesia. 2023 Mar 21;2(2):1-5. https://doi.org/10.26714/jipmi.v2i2.95

49. Pratiwi H, Yenni M, Mirsiyanto E. Faktor yang berhubungan dengan gejala dermatitis kontak pada petani di wilayah kerja puskesmas Paal Merah II. J Inov Penelit. 2022;2(10):3415-20.

50. Annissa A, Annisa A. Faktor-Faktor yang Berhubungan dengan Keluhan Gangguan Kulit pada Nelayan. Faletehan Health J. 2023 Apr 10;10(01):63-9. https://doi.org/10.33746/fhj.v10i01.535

51. Putri DD, Furqon MT, Perdana RS. Klasifikasi Penyakit Kulit Pada Manusia Menggunakan Metode binary decision tree support vector machine (BDTSVM). J Pengembangan Teknol Informasi Dan Ilmu Komputer.2018;2(5):1912-20.

52. Han X, Beaumont C, Stevens N. Chemical composition analysis and in vitro biological activities of ten essential oils in human skin cells. Biochim Open. 2017 Dec;5:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopen.2017.04.001

53. Orchard A, Van Vuuren SF, Viljoen AM, Kamatou G. The in vitro antimicrobial evaluation of commercial essential oils and their combinations against acne. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2018 Jun;40(3):226-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/ics.12456

54. The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources; 2019. (IUCN SSC Global Tree Specialist Group and Botanic Gardens Conservation International (BGCI). Cananga odorata).

55. Mustofa FI, Rahmawati N. Medicinal plants and practices of Rongkong Traditional Healers in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Biodiversitas J Biol Divers. 2020 Jan 23;21(2):642-51. https://doi.org/10.13057/biodiv/d210229

56. Madsen ST, Smith-Hall C. Wild harvesting or cultivation of commercial environmental products: a theoretical model and its application to medicinal plants. Ecol Econ. 2023 Mar;205:107701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2022.107701

57. Vimaladevi K, Selladurai M, Poonkodi K, Prabhu V, Mini R, Manojkumar B. Chemical composition of essential oil of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook. F. & Thomson Leaves and Its Biological Activities. J Essent Oil Bear Plants. 2021 May 4;24(3):596-602. https://doi.org/10.1080/0972060X.2021.1957023

58. Cheng J. Composition and insecticidal activity of the essential oil of Cananga odorata leaves against Sitophilus zeamais Motschulsky (Coleoptera: Curculionidae). J Med Plants Res. 2012 May 23;6(19):3568-72. https://doi.org/10.5897/JMPR12.136

59. Mahfud M, Putri DKY, Dewi IEP, Kusuma HS. Extraction of essential oil from cananga (Cananga odorata) using solvent-free microwave extraction: A preliminary study. Rasayan J Chem. 2017;10(1):86-91.

60. Putri DKY, Dewi IEP, Kusuma HS, Mahfud M. Extraction of an essential oil from fresh cananga flowers (Cananga odorata) using solvent-free microwave method. J Chem Technol Metall. 2019;54(4):793-802.

61. Benini C, Ringuet M, Wathelet JP, Lognay G, du Jardin P, Fauconnier ML. Variations in the essential oils from ylang-ylang (Cananga odorata [Lam.] Hook f. & Thomson forma genuina) in the Western Indian Ocean islands. Flavour Fragr J. 2012;27(5):356-66. https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.3106

62. Benini C, Mahy G, Bizoux JP, Wathelet JP, du Jardin P, Brostaux Y, et al. Comparative chemical and molecular variability of Cananga odorata (Lam.) Hook.f. & Thomson forma genuina (ylang-ylang) in the Western Indian Ocean Islands: implication for valorization. Chem Biodivers. 2012 Jul;9(7):1389-402. https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.201100306

Article Metrics
127 Views 11 Downloads 138 Total

Year

Month

Related Search

By author names