Review on phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of genus Galium

Mayssaloune Ali Kanso Mohamed Ali Hijazi Abdalla El-Lakany Maha Aboul-Ela   

Open Access   

Published:  May 27, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2024.195572
Abstract

Medicinal plants are a rich source of phytochemical constituents of diverse structures that are behind their various pharmacological effects. Plants of genus Galium named Bedstraws, family Rubiaceae, are distributed throughout North and South America, Europe, the northern U.S., southern Canada, and tropical Asia. More than 600 species have been used in traditional medicine for treating different ailments. Owing to the valuable published uses of these plant species, and the versatility of their bioactive metabolites such as Galium verum, Galium aparine, Galium mollugo, and G. odoratum, it was deemed interesting to summarize the previous studies done on this genus to discuss the pharmacological profile of all isolated classes of metabolites. The search was adopted using some essential keywords such as Galium, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and biological activity from journals and books in databases such as Scopus, Elton B. Stephens CO, ScienceDirect, Embase, security identifier, and Medline from 1995 to 2024. The results showed that species belonging to Galium have various pharmacological activities including antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-cancer, immunomodulatory, and anti-inflammatory effects because they are rich in phenolic compounds, iridoid glycosides, anthraquinones, phytosterols, saponins, and essential oils. Accordingly, this review will stimulate the scientific community for further research and boost the discovery of novel bioactive compounds from various species belonging to this genus distributed worldwide.


Keyword:     Galium Rubiaceae phytochemistry pharmacology biological activity


Citation:

Kanso MA, Hijazi MA, El-Lakany A, Aboul-Ela M. Review on phytochemical constituents and pharmacological activities of genus Galium. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2024. Online First. http://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2024.195572

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text

Reference

1. Delprete PG, Jardim JG. Systematics, taxonomy and floristics of Brazilian Rubiaceae: an overview about the current status and future challenges. Rodriguésia. 2012;63:101-28. https://doi.org/10.1590/S2175-78602012000100009

2. Bolzani VDS, Young MCM, Furlan M, Cavalheiro AJ, Araújo AR, Silva DHS et al. Secondary metabolites from Brazilian Rubiaceae plant species: chemotaxonomical and biological significance. Recent Res Dev Phytochem. 2001;5:19-31.

3. Heitzman ME, Neto CC, Winiarz E, Vaisberg AJ, Hammond GB. Ethnobotany, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Uncaria (Rubiaceae). Phytochemistry. 2005 Jan 1;66(1):5-29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phytochem.2004.10.022

4. Martins D, Nunez CV. Secondary metabolites from Rubiaceae species. Molecules. 2015 Jul 22;20(7):13422-95. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules200713422

5. Sanders JP, Dawson WT. Efficacy of quinidine in malaria. J Am Med Assoc. 1932 Nov 19;99(21):1773-7. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.1932.02740730037010

6. Aboul-Ela MA, Kamal SA, Badr JM. Growing in Egypt. Alexandria J Pharm Sci. 2006 Sep;20(2):79.

7. El-Lakany AM, Aboul-Ela MA, Abdel-Kader MS, Badr JM, Sabri NN, Goher Y. Anthraquinones with antibacterial activities from Crucianella maritima L. growing in Egypt. Nat Prod Sci. 2004;10(2):63-8.

8. Jansen S, Robbrecht E, Beeckman H, Smets E. A survey of the systematic wood anatomy of the Rubiaceae. IAWA J. 2002 Jan 1;23(1):1-67. https://doi.org/10.1163/22941932-90000288

9. Judkevich MD, Salas RM, Gonzalez AM. Anatomy and development of the edible fruits of Cordiera concolor (Rubiaceae). Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências. 2022 Aug 1;94:e20210071. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765202220210071

10. Bremer B, Eriksson T. Time tree of Rubiaceae: phylogeny and dating the family, subfamilies, and tribes. Int J Plant Sci. 2009 Jul;170(6):766-93. https://doi.org/10.1086/599077

11. González-Tejero MR, Casares-Porcel M, Sánchez-Rojas CP, Ramiro-Gutiérrez JM, Molero-Mesa J, Pieroni A, et al. Medicinal plants in the Mediterranean area: synthesis of the results of the project Rubia. J Ethnopharmacol. 2008 Mar 5;116(2):341-57. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2007.11.045

12. Güvenalp Z, Kilic N, Kazaz C, Kaya Y, Demirezer L. Chemical constituents of Galium tortumense. Turkish J Chem. 2006;30(4):515-23.

13. Ilyina TV, Goryacha OV, Toryanik EL, Kulish IA, Kovaleva AM. Antimicrobial activity of the genus Galium L. Pharm Commun. 2016;6(1):41-7.

14. Bradic J, Petkovic A, Tomovic M. Phytochemical and Pharmacological properties of some species of the genus. Exp Appl Biomed Res (EABR). 2021;22(3):187-93.

15. Laki? NS, Mimica-Duki? NM, Isak JM, Božin BN. Antioxidant properties of Galium verum L.(Rubiaceae) extracts. Central Eur J Bio. 2010 Jun;5:331-7. https://doi.org/10.2478/s11535-010-0022-4

16. Pashapour S, Heshmati M, Mousavi Z, Esmaeili S. Effect of whole methanolic extract of Galium verum on AGO cell line. Toxicol Commun. 2022;4(2):10. https://doi.org/10.53388/20220202010

17. Pashapour S, Heshmati M, Mousavi Z, Esmaeili S. The apoptotic effect of methanolic extract of Galium verum on HT29 cell line. J Biol Stud. 2022 Mar 30;4(4):210-20. https://doi.org/10.62400/jbs.v4i4.6347

18. Bradic J, Jeremic N, Petkovic A, Jeremic J, Zivkovic V, Srejovic I, et al. Cardioprotective effects of Galium verum L. extract against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury. Arch Physiol Biochem. 2020 Oct 19;126(5):408-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/13813455.2018.1551904

19. Laanet PR, Saar-Reismaa P, Jõul P, Bragina O, Vaher M. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of selected Estonian Galium species. Molecules. 2023 Mar 22;28(6):2867. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules28062867

20. Mili? PS, Rajkovi? KM, Stamenkovi? OS, Veljkovi? VB. Kinetic modeling and optimization of maceration and ultrasound-extraction of resinoid from the aerial parts of white lady's bedstraw (Galium mollugo L.). Ultrasonics sonochemistry. 2013 Jan 1;20(1):525-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ultsonch.2012.07.017

21. Chaher N, Krisa S, Delaunay JC, Bernillon S, Pedrot E, Mérillon JM, et al. Unusual compounds from Galium mollugo and their inhibitory activities against ROS generation in human fibroblasts. J Pharm Biomed Anal. 2016 Jan 5;117:79-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2015.07.027

22. Bavya S, Nagalakshmi R, Sundari UT. Anatomical and preliminary phytochemical evaluation of the medicinal plant: enicostemma littorale. Medicinal. 2022:31.

23. Ilina T, Skowro?ska W, Kashpur N, Granica S, Bazylko A, Kovalyova A, et al. Immunomodulatory activity and phytochemical profile of infusions from Cleavers herb. Molecules. 2020 Aug 14;25(16):3721. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25163721

24. Markovi? MS, Pljevljakuši? DS, Pan?i? AS, Rakonjac LB, Nikoli? BM, Stankov JV. Ethnobotanical use of plants from the genus Galium in the Pirot District. Pirotski Zbornik. 2023(48):191-202. https://doi.org/10.5937/pirotzbor2348191M

25. Khabour OF, Alzoubi KH, Hassanein SF, Makhlouf H, Alhashimi F. Protective effect of essential oils of ocimum basilicum, Galium odoratum, and cymbopogon citratus against oxidative dna damage in cultured human lymphocyte cells. Pak J Bot. 2023 Mar 3;55(1):307-11. https://doi.org/10.30848/PJB2023-1(4)

26. Ilina T, Kashpur N, Granica S, Bazylko A, Shinkovenko I, Kovalyova A, et al. Phytochemical profiles and in vitro immunomodulatory activity of ethanolic extracts from Galium aparine L. Plants. 2019 Nov 25;8(12):541. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants8120541

27. Bokhari J, Khan MR, Shabbir M, Rashid U, Jan S, Zai JA. Evaluation of diverse antioxidant activities of Galium aparine. Spectr Acta Part AMole Biomole Spectr. 2013 Feb 1;102:24-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.saa.2012.09.056

28. Özmatara MB. The effect of extraction methods on antioxidant and enzyme inhibitory activities and phytochemical components of Galium aparine L. Trakya Univ J Nat Sci. 2021 Apr 15.

29. Atmaca H, Bozkurt E, Cittan M, Tepe HD. Effects of Galium aparine extract on the cell viability, cell cycle and cell death in breast cancer cell lines. J Ethnopharmacol. 2016 Jun 20;186:305-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2016.04.007

30. Goryacha OV, Ilyina TV, Kovalyova AM, Kashpur NV. Phytochemical research of Galium aparine L. lipophilic complex and study of its antibacterial activity. Pharma Innov. 2014;3:1.

31. Kahkeshani N, Farahanikia B, Mahdaviani P, Abdolghaffari A, Hassanzadeh G, Abdollahi M, et al. Antioxidant and burn healing potential of Galium odoratum extracts. Res Pharm Sci. 2013 Jul;8(3):197.

32. De Rosa S, Iodice C, Mitova M, Handjieva N, Popov S, Anchev M. Triterpene saponins and iridoid glucosides from Galium rivale. Phytochemistry. 2000 Aug 1;54(8):751-6. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0031-9422(00)00149-7

33. Ferrer-Gallego PP. Typification of Linnaean specific names in the genus Galium (Rubiaceae). Taxonomy. 2020 Oct;69(5):1062-71. https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12243

34. Cooperrider TS. Ohio's herbaria and the Ohio Flora Project. Ohio J Sci. 1984;84(4):189-96.

35. Wood S, Gould K, Smreciu A. Galium boreale: northern bedstraw, sweet scented bedstraw, fragrant bedstraw, 2013.

36. Orhan N, Orhan DD, Aslan M, ?üküro?lu M, Orhan IE. UPLC-TOF-MS analysis of Galium spurium towards its neuroprotective and anticonvulsant activities. J Ethnopharmacol. 2012 May 7;141(1):220-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2012.01.056

37. De Rosa S, Mitova M, Handjieva N, Popov S, Anchev M. Rivalosides A and B, two 19-oxo triterpenoid saponins from Galium rivale. J Nat Prod. 2000 Jul 28;63(7):1012-4. https://doi.org/10.1021/np000073w

38. Mitova MI, Anchev ME, Handjieva NV, Popov SS. Iridoid patterns in Galium L. and some phylogenetic considerations. Zeitschrift für Naturforschung C. 2002 Apr 1;57(3-4):226-34. https://doi.org/10.1515/znc-2002-3-405

39. El-Gamal AA, Takeya K, Itokawa H, Halim AF, Amer MM, Saad HE, et al. Anthraquinones from Galium sinaicum. Phytochemistry. 1995 Sep 1;40(1):245-51. https://doi.org/10.1016/0031-9422(95)00145-W

40. Biswas T, Dwivedi UN. Plant triterpenoid saponins: biosynthesis, in vitro production, and pharmacological relevance. Protoplasma. 2019 Nov;256:1463-86. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00709-019-01411-0

41. Wang C, Gong X, Bo A, Zhang L, Zhang M, Zang E, et al. Iridoids: research advances in their phytochemistry, biological activities, and pharmacokinetics. Molecules. 2020 Jan 10;25(2):287. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules25020287

42. Elhaw MH, Aldinary MM. Physiological and biochemical studieson Galium sinaicum plant. Al-Azhar Bull Sci. 2018 Dec 1;29(2-C):63-72. https://doi.org/10.21608/absb.2018.33812

43. Zengin G, Degirmenci NS, Alpsoy L, Aktumsek A. Evaluation of antioxidant, enzyme inhibition, and cytotoxic activity of three anthraquinones (alizarin, purpurin, and quinizarin). Human Exp Toxicol. 2016 May;35(5):544-53. https://doi.org/10.1177/0960327115595687

44. Mocan A, Crisan G, Vlase L, Ivanescu B, Badarau AS, Arsene AL. Phytochemical investigations on four Galium species (Rubiaceae) from Romania. Farmacia. 2016 Jan 1;64(1):95-9.

45. Karaka? FP, Yildirim A, Türker A. Biological screening of various medicinal plant extracts for antibacterial and antitumor activities. Turkish journal of biology. 2012;36(6):641-52. https://doi.org/10.3906/biy-1203-16

46. Friš?i? M, Štibri? Baglama M, Milovi? M, Hazler Pilepi? K, Maleš Ž. Content of bioactive constituents and antioxidant potential of Galium L. species. Croatica Chemica Acta. 2018 Dec 29;91(3):411-7. https://doi.org/10.5562/cca3379

47. Dias MC, Pinto DC, Silva AM. Plant flavonoids: chemical characteristics and biological activity. Molecules. 2021 Sep 4;26(17):5377. https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules26175377

48. Dinda B. Pharmacology and applications of naturally occurring iridoids. Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany: Springer International Publishing; 2019 Mar 26. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-05575-2

49. Qun T, Zhou T, Hao J, Wang C, Zhang K, Xu J, et al. Antibacterial activities of anthraquinones: structure-activity relationships and action mechanisms. RSC Med Chem. 2023;14(8):1446-71. https://doi.org/10.1039/D3MD00116D

50. Li Y, Jiang JG. Health functions and structure-activity relationships of natural anthraquinones from plants. Food Funct. 2018;9(12):6063-80. https://doi.org/10.1039/C8FO01569D

51. Saha S, Walia S, Kumar J, Parmar BS. Structure-biological activity relationships in triterpenic saponins: the relative activity of protobassic acid and its derivatives against plant pathogenic fungi. Pest Manag Sci. 2010 Aug;66(8):825-31. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.1947

52. Sparg S, Light ME, Van Staden J. Biological activities and distribution of plant saponins. J Ethnopharmacol. 2004 Oct 1;94(2-3):219-43. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2004.05.016

53. Woyengo TA, Ramprasath VR, Jones PJ. Anticancer effects of phytosterols. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2009 Jul;63(7):813-20. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2009.29

54. Shahzad N, Khan W, Shadab MD, Ali A, Saluja SS, Sharma S, et al. Phytosterols as a natural anticancer agent: current status and future perspective. Biomed Pharm. 2017 Apr 1;88:786-94. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.01.068

55. Ya??z F, Battalo?lu R, ?lk S, Savran A. Antibacterial activity and chemical composition of essential oils from some Galium (Rubiaceae) species against pathogenic bacteria. Turkish J Agric-Food Sci Technol. 2017 Oct 30;5(11):1330-3. https://doi.org/10.24925/turjaf.v5i11.1330-1333.1414

56. Konuk HB, Ergüden B. Phenolic-OH group is crucial for the antifungal activity of terpenoids via disruption of cell membrane integrity. Folia Microbio. 2020 Aug;65(4):775-83. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12223-020-00787-4

Article Metrics
57 Views 26 Downloads 83 Total

Year

Month

Related Search

By author names