A systematic scoping review of implementation of telepharmacy during COVID-19

Syed Arman Rabbani Shrestha Sharma Asiya Mahtab Faheem Hyder Pottoo Sathvik B. Sridhar   

Open Access   

Published:  Dec 24, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.113646
Abstract

This systematic scoping review aimed to examine the literature on expanding role of telepharmacy services during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Four electronic databases, PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, and Cochrane, were searched to identify published studies that reported implementation of telepharmacy services since the start of pandemic (31st December 2019 to 31st May 2022). Twenty-eight studies met the inclusion criteria comprising 15 cross-sectional studies, 12 studies sharing experience and practice related to telepharmacy services, and one pre-post intervention study. Studies reported establishment and implementation of various novel telepharmacy models in different settings; primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary care hospitals, hospital and community pharmacies, and specialized care centers. Telepharmacy provided pharmaceutical care to patients with COVID-19, chronic diseases, HIV infection, cancer, cystic fibrosis, and patients on anticoagulants. Pharmaceutical care services like patient counseling services (19 studies), medication order review and medication reconciliation (15 studies), drug therapy optimization (11 studies), adverse drug reaction monitoring and management (7 studies), medication adherence assessment (5 studies), and drug-related problem monitoring (4 studies) were delivered using telepharmacy. Based on the identified evidence, telepharmacy proved beneficial in delivering a range of pharmaceutical care services to the patients during the current pandemic. However, there is a need for more rigorous evidence on the reliability, safety, and effectiveness of telepharmacy in comparison to the traditional face-to-face healthcare delivery model.


Keyword:     Telepharmacy COVID-19 pharmaceutical care patient counseling drug therapy optimization


Citation:

Rabbani SA, Sharma S, Mahtab A, Pottoo FH, Sridhar SB. A systematic scoping review of implementation of telepharmacy during COVID-19. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2022. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2023.113646

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text

Reference

Alexander E, Butler CD, Darr A, Jenkins MT, Long RD, Shipman CJ, Stratton TP. ASHP statement on telepharmacy. Am J Heal Pharm, 2017; 74:e236-41. https://doi.org/10.2146/ajhp170039

Allison A, Shahan J, Goodner J, Smith L, Sweet C. Providing essential clinical pharmacy services during a pandemic: virtual video rounding and precepting. Am J Heal Pharm, 2021; 78:1556-8. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxab208

Al-Rabayah AA, Hammoudeh SS, AbuBlan RS, et al. Oncology pharmacists' response to COVID-19 pandemic in Jordan: The King Hussein Cancer Center experience. J Glob Health. 2021;11:1-4. doi:10.7189/ JOGH.11.03048. https://doi.org/10.7189/jogh.11.03048

Ameri A, Salmanizadeh F, Bahaadinbeigy K. Tele-pharmacy: a new opportunity for consultation during the COVID-19 pandemic. Heal Policy Technol, 2020; 9:281-2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.06.005

Al Ammari M, AlThiab K, AlJohani M, Sultana K, Maklhafi N, AlOnazi H, Maringa A. Tele-pharmacy anticoagulation clinic during COVID-19 pandemic: patient outcomes. Front Pharmacol, 2021; 12:1-9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.652482

Al Mazrouei N, Ibrahim RM, Al Meslamani AZ, Abdel-Qader DH, Mohamed Ibrahim O. Virtual pharmacist interventions on abuse of over-the-counter medications during COVID-19 versus traditional pharmacist interventions. J Am Pharm Assoc, 2021; 61:331-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.02.003

Al Meslamani AZ, Kassem AB, El-Bassiouny NA, Ibrahim OM. An emergency plan for management of COVID-19 patients in rural areas. Int J Clin Pract, 2021; 75:e14563. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14563

Asseri A.A., Manna M.M., Yasin I.M., Moustafa M.M., Roubie G.M., El-Anssay S.M., Baqawie S.K., Alsaeed M.A. Implementation and evaluation of telepharmacy during COVID-19 pandemic in an academic medical city in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: Paving the way for telepharmacy. World J. Adv. Res. Rev. 2020;7:218-226. doi: 10.30574/ wjarr.2020.7.2.0250. https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr.2020.7.2.0250

Baldoni S, Amenta F, Ricci G. Telepharmacy services: present status and future perspectives: a review. Med, 2019; 55:327. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina55070327

Bejarano AP, Villar Santos P, Robustillo-Cortés M de LA, Sánchez Gómez E, Santos Rubio MD. Implementation of a novel home delivery service during pandemic. Eur J Hosp Pharm Sci Pract. 2021;28(Suppl 2):e120-e123. doi:10.1136/ejhpharm-2020-002500. https://doi.org/10.1136/ejhpharm-2020-002500

Bindler RJ. The impact of telepharmacy services on the identification of medication discrepancies, high-alert medications, and cost avoidance at rural healthcare institutions. J Int Soc Telemed EHealth, 2020; 8:e5-1. https://doi.org/10.29086/JISfTeH.8.e5

Budd J, Miller BS, Manning EM, Lampos V, Zhuang M, Edelstein M, Rees G, Emery VC, Stevens MM, Keegan N, Short MJ. Digital technologies in the public-health response to COVID-19. Nat Med, 2020; 26:1183-92. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41591-020-1011-4

Bukhari N, Siddique M, Bilal N, Javed S, Moosvi A, Babar ZUD. Pharmacists and telemedicine: an innovative model fulfilling Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). J Pharm Policy Pract, 2021; 14:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-021-00378-9

Clifton GD, Byer H, Heaton K, Haberman DJ, Gill H. Provision of pharmacy services to underserved populations via remote dispensing and two-way videoconferencing. Am J Heal Pharm, 2003; 60:2577-82. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/60.24.2577

Elson EC, Oermann C, Duehlmeyer S, Bledsoe S. Use of telemedicine to provide clinical pharmacy services during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Am J Health Syst Pharm. 2020;77(13):1005-1006. doi:10.1093/ ajhp/zxaa112 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa112

Segal et al. (2020)

Segal EM, Alwan L, Pitney C, et al. Establishing clinical pharmacist telehealth services during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am J Heal Pharm. 2020;77(17):1403-1408. doi:10.1093/ajhp/zxaa184 https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa184

Fensterheim LE, Gunn JG, Pokuta KL, Straszewski A, Marks A. Initial impact of Telepharmacy on specialty Medication adherence. Value Heal, 2015; 18:A299. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jval.2015.03.1743

Hedima EW, Okoro RN. Telepharmacy: an opportunity for community pharmacists during the COVID-19 pandemic in Sub Saharan Africa. Heal Policy Technol, 2020; 10(1):23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.hlpt.2020.10.013

Hudd TR, Tataronis GR. The impact of an urban telepharmacy on patient medication adherence in a federally qualified health center. J Pharm Technol, 2011; 27:117-22. https://doi.org/10.1177/875512251102700304

Hussain K, Ambreen G, Muzammil M, Raza SS, Ali U. Pharmacy services during COVID-19 pandemic: experience from a tertiary care teaching hospital in Pakistan. J Pharm Policy Pract. 2020;13(1):74. doi:10.1186/s40545-020-00277-5 https://doi.org/10.1186/s40545-020-00277-5

Ibrahim OM, Ibrahim RM, Z Al Meslamani A, Al Mazrouei N. Role of telepharmacy in pharmacist counselling to coronavirus disease 2019 patients and medication dispensing errors. J Telemed Telecare, 2020:1357633X2096434. https://doi.org/10.1177/1357633X20964347

Killeen RM, Grindrod K, Ong SW. Innovations in practice: telepharmacy's time has arrived. Can Pharm J, 2020; 153:252-5. https://doi.org/10.1177/1715163520945732

Kimber MB, Peterson GM. Telepharmacy-enabling technology to provide quality pharmacy services in rural and remote communities. J Pharm Pract Res, 2006; 36:128-33. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.2055-2335.2006.tb00588.x

Kjerengtroen S, Wilde SM, Fontaine G V., Forbush KM, Van Gorder CM, Wohlt P. COVID-19 preparedness: clinical pharmacy services remote staffing in a quaternary, level I trauma and comprehensive stroke center. Am J Heal Pharm, 2020; 77:1250-6. https://doi.org/10.1093/ajhp/zxaa132

Kova?evi? M, ?ulafi? M, Vezmar Kova?evi? S, Borjani? S, Kele? B, Miljkovi? B, Amidži? R. Telepharmacy service experience during the COVID-19 pandemic in the Republic of Srpska, Bosnia and Herzegovina. Health Soc Care Community, 2021; 30(5):e1639-50. https://doi.org/10.1111/hsc.13590

Lam AY, Rose D. Telepharmacy services in an urban community health clinic system. J Am Pharm Assoc, 2009; 49:652-9. https://doi.org/10.1331/JAPhA.2009.08128

Le T, Toscani M, Colaizzi J. Telepharmacy: a new paradigm for our profession. J Pharm Pract, 2020; 33:176-82. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190018791060

Li H, Zheng S, Li D, Jiang D, Liu F, Guo W, Zhao Z, Zhou Y, Liu J, Zhao R. The establishment and practice of pharmacy care service based on internet social media: telemedicine in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Front Pharmacol, 2021; 12:707442. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.707442

Littauer SL, Dixon DL, Mishra VK, Sisson EM, Salgado TM. Pharmacists providing care in the outpatient setting through telemedicine models: a narrative review. Pharm Pract (Granada), 2017; 15:1134. https://doi.org/10.18549/PharmPract.2017.04.1134

Livet M, Levitt JM, Lee A, Easter J. The pharmacist as a public health resource: Expanding telepharmacy services to address social determinants of health during the COVID-19 pandemic. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm, 2021; 2:100032. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100032

Marchese M, Heintzman A, Pasetka M, Charbonneau F, DeAngelis C, Peragine C. Development of a process map for the delivery of virtual clinical pharmacy services at Odette Cancer Centre during the COVID-19 pandemic. J Oncol Pharm Pract, 2021; 27:650-7. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078155221991202

Margolis KL, Asche SE, Bergdall AR, Dehmer SP, Groen SE, Kadrmas HM, Kerby TJ, Klotzle KJ, Maciosek MV, Michels RD, O'Connor PJ. Effect of home blood pressure telemonitoring and pharmacist management on blood pressure control. JAMA, 2013; 310:46. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2013.6549

Margusino-Framiñán L, Illarro-Uranga A, Lorenzo-Lorenzo K, Monte-Boquet E, Márquez-Saavedra E, Fernández-Bargiela N, Gómez- Gómez D, Lago-Rivero N, Poveda-Andrés JL, Díaz-Acedo R, Hurtado- Bouza JL. Pharmaceutical care to hospital outpatients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Telepharmacy. Farm Hosp, 2020; 44:61-5.

McDonald K. Practice spotlight: a telepharmacy model of care for hospitals. Can J Hosp Pharm, 2009; 62:510. https://doi.org/10.4212/cjhp.v62i6.850

McFarland M, Davis K, Wallace J, Wan J, Cassidy R, Morgan T, Venugopal D. Use of home telehealth monitoring with active medication therapy management by clinical pharmacists in veterans with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus. Pharmacother J Hum Pharmacol Drug Ther, 2012; 32:420-6. https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1875-9114.2011.01038.x

McNamara A, Zhao M, Shin-Yu L, Lee SY. Evaluating the primary care clinical pharmacist visit transition to telehealth during the COVID-19 pandemic by comparing medication related problems from telehealth visits and in-person visits. J Am Coll Clin Pharm, 2021; 4:914- 23. https://doi.org/10.1002/jac5.1487

Mohiuddin SI, Thorakkattil SA, Abushoumi F, Nemr HS, Jabbour R, Al-Ghamdi F. Implementation of pharmacist-led tele medication management clinic in ambulatory care settings: a patient-centered care model in COVID-19 Era. Explor Res Clin Soc Pharm, 2021; 4:100083. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.rcsop.2021.100083

Monaghesh E, Hajizadeh A. The role of telehealth during COVID-19 outbreak: a systematic review based on current evidence. BMC Public Health, 2020; 4:1-9. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09301-4

Nissen L, Tett S. Can telepharmacy provide pharmacy services in the bush? J Telemed Telecare, 2003; 9:39-41. https://doi.org/10.1258/135763303322596228

Peters MDJ, Godfrey CM, Khalil H, McInerney P, Parker D, Soares CB. Guidance for conducting systematic scoping reviews. Int J Evid Based Healthc, 2015; 13:141-6. https://doi.org/10.1097/XEB.0000000000000050

Peterson CD, Anderson HC. The North Dakota telepharmacy project: restoring and retaining pharmacy services in rural communities. J Pharm Technol, 2004; 20:28-39. https://doi.org/10.1177/875512250402000107

Poulson LK, Nissen L, Coombes I. Pharmaceutical review using telemedicine - a before and after feasibility study. J Telemed Telecare, 2010; 16:95-9. https://doi.org/10.1258/jtt.2009.090716

Plantado ANR, de Guzman HJ d. V, Mariano JEC, Salvan MRAR, Benosa CAC, Robles YR. Development of an Online Telepharmacy Service in the Philippines and Analysis of Its Usage During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Pharm Pract. Published online 2021. doi:10.1177/08971900211033120. https://doi.org/10.1177/08971900211033120

Quirós-González V, Rubio R, Pulido F, Rial-Crestelo D, Martín- Jurado C, Hernández-Ros MÁ, López-Jiménez EA, Ferrari JM, Caro- Teller JM, Pinar Ó, Pedrera-Jiménez M. Healthcare outcomes in patients with HIV infection at a tertiary hospital during The COVID-19 pandemic. Enfermedades Infecc y Microbiol Clin, 2021. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eimc.2021.07.013

Shafiee Hanjani L, Caffery LJ, Freeman CR, Peeters G, Peel NM. A scoping review of the use and impact of telehealth medication reviews. Res Soc Adm Pharm, 2020; 16:1140-53. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2019.12.014

Surapat B, Sungkanuparph S, Kirdlarp S, Lekpittaya N, Chunnguleum K. Role of clinical pharmacists in telemonitoring for patients with Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). J Clin Pharm Ther, 2021; 46:236-9. https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpt.13293

Tortajada-Goitia B, Morillo-Verdugo R, Margusino-Framiñán L, Marcos JA, Fernández-Llamazares CM. Survey on the situation of telepharmacy as applied to the outpatient care in hospital pharmacy departments in Spain during the COVID-19 pandemic. Farm Hosp, 2020; 44:135-40.

Traynor K. Telepharmacy services bring new patient care opportunities. Am J Heal Pharm, 2013; 70:565-6. https://doi.org/10.2146/news130025

Tricco AC, Lillie E, Zarin W, O'Brien KK, Colquhoun H, Levac D, Moher D, Peters MD, Horsley T, Weeks L, Hempel S. PRISMA extension for scoping reviews (PRISMA-ScR): checklist and explanation. Ann Intern Med, 2018; 169:467-73. https://doi.org/10.7326/M18-0850

Unni EJ, Patel K, Beazer IR, Hung M. Telepharmacy during COVID-19: a scoping review. Pharmacy, 2021; 9:183. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9040183

Warda N, Rotolo SM. Virtual medication tours with a pharmacist as part of a cystic fibrosis telehealth visit. J Am Pharm Assoc. 2021;61(5):e119-e125. doi:10.1016/J.JAPH.2021.04.005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.04.005

Yong et al. (2021)

Yong WY, Chang CT, Chew CC, Khoo TE. Interactive virtual medication counselling in outpatient pharmacy: An accessible and safe patient counselling method during the COVID-19 pandemic. Res Soc Adm Pharm. 2021;17(10):1860-1862. doi:10.1016/J.SAPHARM.2021.07.002 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2021.07.002

Wang D, Liu Y, Zeng F, Chen shi, Cheng F, Han Y, Zhang Y. Evaluation of the role and usefulness of clinical pharmacists at the Fangcang Hospital during COVID-19 outbreak. Int J Clin Pract, 2021; 75:e14271. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijcp.14271

Wergles CSC, Guilarducci CVV, Fernandez CS, Calil-Elias S. Use of Telepharmacy To Support Patients Using Oral Antineoplastic Agents: A Pilot Study, 03 June 2021, PREPRINT (Version 1) available at Research Square [https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-472358/v1] https://doi.org/10.21203/rs.3.rs-472358/v1

Win AZ. Telepharmacy: time to pick up the line. Res Soc Adm Pharm, 2017; 13:882-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2015.06.002

Article Metrics

0 Absract views 2 PDF Downloads 2 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required