The pharmacological evaluation of antifertility role of Plumeria acuminata on the reproduction of female Wistar rats

Jay P Rabadia Tushar R Desai Vihang S Thite   

Open Access   

Published:  Jun 20, 2022


Treatment-induced imbalance in female reproductive hormones can lead to difficulty in ovulation and preparing the endometrium for efficient reception can cumulatively suggest the antifertility role of the drug. Traditionally, ancient herbal medicines are proficiently used to rule out fertility and its control-related issues. This research aims to explore a fertility regulatory profile of leaves and roots ethanolic extract from Plumeria acuminata of the Apocynaceae family. Plumeria acuminata leaves and roots ethanolic extracts were prepared by cold maceration process, subjected to qualitative phytochemical analysis, and acute toxicity test. Based on the LD50 values, 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg doses of both extracts were determined for antifertility activity in adult Wistar female rats. Test-item treatments were given orally from day 1 to 28. Morphological, hematological, hormonal, and histological examinations were performed on day 29 after euthanizing animals. Administration of extracts expressively altered the hormonal intensities up to ~7%–99%, i.e., a decrease in estrogen, progesterone, and luteinizing hormone level as well as an increased in folliclestimulating hormone level. Anatomical alterations in reproductive organs were confirmed by observing cystic follicles and atrophied squamous cells during histopathological evaluation. Vaginal smear evaluation confirmed the disturbance of the estrous cycle with an increase in estrous cycle length up to ~8%–64% as well as a decrease in the number of the estrous cycle and each phase up to ~0%–118% except for diestrus phase. Achieved antifertility results can be attributed to hormonal imbalance, mainly caused by the stigmasterol, saponins, flavonoids, and alkaloids groups of phytochemicals in leaves and roots ethanolic extracts.

Keyword:     Anti-fertility estrous cycle estrogen FSH LH histopathology


Rabadia JP, Desai TR, Thite VS. The pharmacological evaluation of antifertility role of Plumeria acuminata on the reproduction of female Wistar rats. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2022. Online First.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Ahirwar D, Ahirwar B, Kharya M. Evaluation of antifertility activity of Trigonella foenum graecum seeds. Der Pharm Sinica, 2010; 1(3):33-9.

Al-Qudsi F, Linjawi S. Histological and hormonal changes in rat endometrium under the effect of Camphor. Life Sci J, 2012; 9(2):348-55.

Amit S, Pankaj A. Anti fertility activity of hydro alcoholic extract of Trillium Govanianum in Ethinyl estradiol induced anti fertility model in rats. Asian J Pharm Res Dev, 2018; 6(2):74-81.

An GH, Chen XW, Li C, Zhang L, Wei MF, Chen JJ, Ma Q, Yang DF, Wang J. Pathophysiological changes in female rats with estrous cycle disorder induced by long-term heat stress. Biomed Res Int, 2020; 2020:1-10.

Asuquo OR. Histomorphological study of the anti-fertility effect of Spondias Mombin L. in adult male rats. J Pharm Biol Sci, 2012; 3(2):29-34.

Bandyopadhyay S. Anti-fertility activity of methanol extract of Bassia latifolia and Cajanus cajan in female albino mice ovaries. Iran J Pharmacol Ther, 2010; 9(2):83-7.

Barton BE, Herrera GG, Anamthathmakula P, Rock JK, Willie AM, Harris EA, Takemaru KI, Winuthayanon W. Roles of steroid hormones in oviductal function. Reproduction, 2020; 159(3):R125-37.

Bhaskar VH, Profulla KM, Balakrishnan BR., Balakrishnan N, Sangameswaran B. Evaluation of the anti-fertility activity of stem bark of Crataeva nurvala buch-hum. African J Biotechnol, 2009; 8(22):6453-6.

Byers SL, Wiles M V, Dunn SL, Taft RA. Mouse estrous cycle identification tool and images. PLoS One, 2012; 7(4):1-5.

Chen X, Hou X, Feng T, Han N, Wang J, Chang G. Anti-fertility effect of levonorgestrel and/or quinestrol on striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius): evidence from both laboratory and field experiments. Integr Zool, 2021; 1-12.

Choudhary M, Rani S, Sharma P, Choudhary N, Budhwaar V. Anti-fertility and abortifacient potential of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Alstonia scholaris in female rats: an ethnomedicine used by Papua women in New Guinea. Bull Fac Pharmacy Cairo Univ, 2017; 55(1):123-7.

Daud D, Azahar A, Zainal Abidin SSF, Tawang A. The effects of Cosmos caudatus and Piper sarmentosum aqueous extracts on male mice fertility. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2015; 7:296-8.

Devi P, Kumar P, Dhamija I. Antifertility activity of medicinal plants on male and female reproduction. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 2015; 4(1):1-6.

Edwin S, Joshi SB, Jain CD. Antifertility activity of stems of Plumbago zeylanica Linn. in female albino rats. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care, 2008; 14(3):233-9.

Fajriaty I, Haryanto IH, Haryanto Y. Anti-fertility effect of ethanol extract of lerak (Sapindus rarak DC) fruits in female Sprague Dawley Rats. Nusant Biosci, 2017; 9(1):102-6.

Farooque A, Mazumder A, Mazumder R. Review on Plumeria acuminata. Int J Res Pharm, 2012; 2(2):467-9.

Ganaie JA, Shrivastava VK. Effects of gonadotropin releasing hormone conjugate immunization and bioenhancing role of Kamdhenu ark on estrous cycle, serum estradiol and progesterone levels in female Mus musculus. Iran J Reprod Med, 2010; 8(2):70-5.

Gilbreath ET, Mohankumar S, Balasubramanian P, Agnew DW, Mohankumar PS. Chronic exposure to low levels of estradiol and their effects on the ovaries and reproductive hormones: Comparison with aging. Endo Disruptor, 2014; 2(1):e967127.

Gomathi P, Gupta M, Mazumder UK, Gebrelibanos M, Sintayehu B. Antioxidant and antitumor activity of Plumeria acuminata in Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma Bearing Swiss Albino Mice. J Pharm Res Int, 2013; 3(4):671-85.

Gomathi P, Shalini T, Farheen N, Sanjeevkumar A. Antidiabetic activity of Plumeria acuminata leaves on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Asian J Res Biol Pharm Sci, 2016; 4(3):99-104.

Goyal AK. Phytochemistry and in vitro studies on anti-fertility effect of Ficus religiosa fruits extract on uterine morphology of goat (Capra hircus). Int J Drug Dev Res, 2014; 6(2):141-58.

Goyeneche AA, Deis RP, Gibori G, Telleria CM. Progesterone promotes survival of the rat corpus luteum in the absence of cognate receptors. Biol Reprod, 2003; 68(1):151-8.

Gupta M. Phytochemical screening of leaves of Plumeria alba and Plumeria acuminata. J Chem Pharm Res, 2016; 8:354-8. Hyacinth AA, Nwocha UC. Antifertility activity of aqueous ethanolic extract of Hymenocardia acida stem bark in female rats. Iran J Reprod Med, 2011; 9(3):217-7.

Jaber BM, Jasim SF. Phytochemical study of stigmasterol and β-sitosterol in Viola odorata plant cultivated in Iraq. Iraqi J Biotech, 2014; 13(2):86-94.

Jain S, Choudhary GP, Jain DK. Pharmacological evaluation and antifertility activity of Jatropha gossypifolia in rats. Biomed Res Int, 2013; 1-5.

Jain S, Choudhary, GP, Jain DK. Medicinal plants with potential anti-fertility activity: a review. Int J Green Pharm, 2015; 9(4):223-228.

Jaini R, Altuntas CZ, Loya MG, Tuohy VK. Disruption of estrous cycle homeostasis in mice with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J Neuroimmunol, 2015; 279:71-4.

Kafali H, Iriadam M, Ozardali I, Demir N. Letrozole-induced polycystic ovaries in the rat: A new model for cystic ovarian disease. Arch Med Res, 2004; 35(2):103-8.

Karateke A, Dokuyucu R, Dogan H, Ozgur T, Tas ZA, Tutuk O, Agturk G, Tumer C. Investigation of therapeutic effects of erdosteine on polycystic ovary syndrome in a rat model. Med Princ Pract, 2019; 27:515- 22.

Kayode AO, Uche CO, Grillo BD, Tolulope OO. Toxic effects of methanolic extract of Aspilia africana leaf on the estrous cycle and uterine tissues of Wistar rats. Int J Morphol, 2007; 25(3):609-14.

Li S, Herrera GG, Tam KK, Lizarraga JS, Beedle MT, Winuthayanon W. Estrogen action in the epithelial cells of the mouse vagina regulates neutrophil infiltration and vaginal tissue integrity. Sci Rep, 2018; 8(1):1-13.

Li T, Ma Y, Zhang H, Yan P, Huo L, Hu Y, Chen X, Zhang M, Liu Z. Estrogen replacement regulates vaginal innervations in ovariectomized adult virgin rats: a histological study. Biomed Res Int, 2017; 1-6.

Mahesh VB, Muldoon TG. Integration of the effects of estradiol and progesterone in the modulation of gonadotropin secretion. J Steroid Biochem, 1987; 27(4-6):665-75.

Mair T, Watson ED. The endocrine system (Chapter 11). The Equine manual, 2nd edition, pp 627-58, 2006.

Mansouri E, Asadi-Samani M, Kooti W, Ghasemiboroon M, Ashtary-Larky D, Alamiri F, Afrisham R, Noohi ZH. Anti-fertility effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) seed in male Wistar rats. J Vet Res, 2016; 60(3):357-63.

Marcondes FK, Bianchi FJ, Tanno AP. Determination of the estrous cycle phases of rats: Some helpful considerations. Brazilian J Biol, 2002; 62(4A):609-14.

Marin AR, Roco IM, Okanya VK, Olin JNC, Pancho JJE. Bronchodilation effects of kalachuchi leaves (Plumeria acuminata, family: apocynaceae) of ethanol extracts on cat-induced bronchoconstriction. Eur J Pharm Med Res, 2020; 7(1):15-29.

Mittal DK. Analysis of crocus sativus (saffron) on estrous cycle and induced reversible sterility in rat. World J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2020; 9(5):1760-5.

Mukhram MA, Shivakumar H, Viswanatha GL, Rajesh S. Antifertility effect of flower extracts of Tabernaemontana divaricata in rats. Chin J Nat Med, 2012; 10(1):58-62.

Mziray AM, Maina CI, Kaingu CK. Anti-fertility properties of Cissus rotundifolia Vahl. extract using female Wistar rats. Phytomedicine, 2020; 7(2):58-64.

Nayaka HB, Londonkar RL, Andumesh MK. Evaluation of Portulaca oleracea L. for anti-fertility effect in female albino rats. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2014; 6(5):86-9.

Ngadjui E, Nkeng-Efouet PA, Nguelefack TB, Kamanyi A, Watcho P. High fat diet-induced estrus cycle disruption: effects of Ficus asperifolia. J Complement Integr Med, 2015; 12(3):205-15.

Oyewopo OA, Dare JB, Towolawi AO, Olaniyan OT, Omotoso OD, Shafe MO, Lenus SC, Leke MJ, Ariyo IA, Owolabi OJ. Cottonseed extract and anti-fertility: metabolic versus hormonal changes in rat model. World J Life Sci Med Res, 2012; 2(5):196-6.

Paccola CC, Resende CG, Stumpp T, Miraglia SM, Cipriano I. The rat estrous cycle revisited: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. Anim Reprod, 2013; 10(4):677-83.

Renczes E, Maronek M, Gaal Kovalcikova A, Vavrincova-Yaghi D, Tothova L, Hodosy J. Behavioral changes during development of chronic kidney disease in rats. Front Med, 2020; 6:1-8.

Sanabria V, Bittencourt S, de la Rosa T, Livramento J, Tengan C, Scorza CA, Cavalheiro E, Amado D. Characterization of the estrous cycle in the Amazon spiny rat (Proechimys guyannensis). Heliyon, 2019; 5(12):1-5.

Sari IP, Nurrochmad A, Rahayu S. Evaluation of anti-fertility effect of aqueous extract of Costus speciosus (Koen.) J.E. Smith rhizome in mice. Int J Pharm Clin Res, 2016; 8(5):440-4.

Shah M, Singh R, Shah R, Kakar S. An overview of the current methodologies used for evaluation of anti-fertility agents. Asian Pacific J Reprod, 2016a; 5(3):175-8.

Shah SK, Jhade D, Chouksey R. Antifertility activity of ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Aloe Vera Mill on female wistar rats: rising approaches of herbal contraception. J Pharm Sci Res, 2016b; 8(9):952-7.

Singh R, Kakar S, Shah M, Jain R. Some medicinal plants with anti-fertility potential: a current status. J Basic Clin Repro Sci, 2017; 7(1):7-19.

Sundar Rajan T, Sarathchandiran I, Kadalmani B. Evaluation of anti-fertility activity of herbal oral contraceptive suspension on male Wistar albino rats. J Pharm Res, 2013; 7(4):342-6.

Sunitha K, aMohan GK. Immunomodulatory screening of Plumeria acuminata stem bark. World J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2017; 6(11):1172-6.

Sunitha K, Naga Rani C. Antibacterial activity of methanolic extracts of flowers of Plumeria acuminata. J Global Trends Pharm Sci, 2018; 9(1):4978-80.

Taid TC, Rajkhowa RCH, Kalita JCH. The effect of Plumeria acuminata ait on oestrous cycle and acute oral toxicity study in c3h female albino mice. Int J Dev Res, 2016; 6(12):10620-4.

Thanamool C. Evaluating the anti-fertility activity of Talinum paniculatum (Jacq.) Gaertn in female wistar rats. African J Pharm Pharmacol, 2013; 7(26):1802-7.

Udiwal S, Jain NK, Gupta MK, Goyal S. Anti-fertility activity of Butea Monosperma Linn in albino rats. Curr Res Biol Pharm Sci, 2014; 3(4):6-11.

Van De Lagemaat R, Timmers CM, Kelder J, Van Koppen C, Mosselman S, Hanssen RGJM. Induction of ovulation by a potent, orally active, low molecular weight agonist (Org 43553) of the luteinizing hormone receptor. Hum Reprod, 2009; 24(3):640-8.

Yadav A, Undale V, Bhosale A. Antidiabetic activity of Plumeria rubra L. in normal and alloxan induced diabetic mice. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol, 2016; 5(3):884-889.

Yinusa R, Adeniran A, Ibukun PO, Omowumi FA. Reproductive activities of female albino rats treated with quassin, a bioactive triterpenoid from stem bark extract of quassia amara. Niger J Physiol Sci, 2010; 25(2):95-102.

Article Metrics

1 Absract views 0 PDF Downloads 1 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required