Research Article | Volume: 10, Issue: 2, February, 2020

Antimicrobial evaluation and molecular properties prediction of pyrazolines incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties

Mervat A. Elsherif Ashraf S. Hassan Gaber O. Moustafa Hassan M. Awad Nesrin M. Morsy   

Open Access   

Published:  Feb 02, 2020

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2020.102006
Abstract

A series of chalcones 3–5, 1H-pyrazolines 6–8, N-phenylpyrazolines 9–11, and N-acetylpyrazolines 12–14 incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties were synthesized and screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity against some of pathogenic microorganisms. Among the screened compounds, 7 and 13 showed the most promising antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (G-). Compound 11 displayed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis (G+). Moreover, compounds 10 and 4 were found to be the most potent antifungal agent against Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger, respectively. Also, the molecular properties prediction and drug-likeness model score (DLS) of all the synthesized compounds were calculated by SwissADME and MolSoft websites, respectively. The two compounds 7 and 13 were found to be maximum DLS of 0.75 and 0.83, respectively.


Keyword:     Pyrazoline benzofuran pyrazole antimicrobial activities drug-likeness Lipinski rules.


Citation:

Elsherif MA, Hassan AS, Moustafa GO, Awad HM, Morsy NM. Antimicrobial evaluation and molecular properties prediction of pyrazolines incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2020; 10(02):037–043.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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INTRODUCTION

An antimicrobial is an agent that kills microorganisms or stops their growth. There are many types of antimicrobial drugs in the markets, e.g., penicillins, cycloserine, aminoglycosides, chloramphenicol, quinolones, tetracyclines, and glycopeptides, but the resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs by internal resistance or acquired resistance decreased the activities of these drugs. Therefore, the development of newer antimicrobial compounds for the treatment of the resistance of microorganisms has become a major objective of medicinal chemists

Literature survey revealed that substituted pyrazoline could act as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, antidepressant, antiprotozoal, and antidiabetic agents (Havrylyuk et al., 2016; Marella et al., 2013; Silva et al., 2018). Derivative A showed potent antibacterial profile against the tested Gram-positive [Minimal Inhibition Concentration (MIC) = 8 μg/ml] and Gram-negative (MIC= 32 μg/ml) bacterial strains (Sharma et al., 2010). Compound B exhibit good activities against Staphylococcus aureus [inhibition zone (IZ)= 21 mm] and Candida albicans (IZ = 24 mm) (Sharshira et al., 2012). Compound C exhibited the most potent antimicrobial activities against S. aureus, Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, and C. albicans with MIC= 3.12 μg/ml (Ahmad et al., 2016). Also, some drugs bearing a pyrazoline moiety in their structures, e.g., phenazone and propyphenazone have analgesic and antipyretic effects. Metamizole is a spasm reliever, fever reliever, and it has anti-inflammatory effects (Fig. 1).

Further literature survey revealed that benzofuran or pyrazole moieties have been implemented as anticancer, antiviral, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and antimalarial agents (Chand et al., 2017; Karrouchi et al., 2018; Shamsuzzaman et al., 2015). Moreover, the compound D bearing benzofuran and pyrazole moieties showed excellent antimicrobial activities for Ralstonia solanacearum, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Fusarium oxysporum and Aspergillus flavus (Lingaraju et al., 2017). Compound E bearing benzofuran and pyrazoline moieties exhibited excellent antimicrobial activities in comparison with the standard drug used (Rangaswamy et al., 2012) (Fig. 1).

Based on above information and in continuation of our research program to find new potent antimicrobial and anticancer agents (Abd El-All et al., 2016; Abo-Ghalia et al., 2017; Al-Salem et al., 2017; Amr et al., 2018; El-Naggar et al., 2018; Elgemeie et al., 2008; Hafez et al., 2013; Hassan and Hafez, 2018; Hassan et al., 2019; 2015a; 2017a; 2018a; 2017b; 2015b; 2017c; 2015c; Kassem et al., 2019; Khatab et al., 2019; Moustafa et al., 2018; 2019; Naglah et al., 2017; 2013; Osman et al., 2014; 2009), a series of pyrazolines 6–14 incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties have been synthesized to evaluate their antimicrobial activity against some of pathogenic microorganisms. Also, the calculation of the pharmacokinetic properties and drug-likeness of all compounds were studied.(Fig. 2)

Figure 1. Examples of pyrazolines, benzofurans, and pyrazoles as antimicrobial activities and the structures of some drugs bearing pyrazoline moiety.

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Figure 2. Design of pyrazoline derivatives incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties.

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MATERIALS AND METHODS

Antimicrobial activities

The synthesized compounds (Chalcones 3–5, 1H-pyrazolines 6–8, N-phenylpyrazolines 9–11, and N-acetylpyrazolines 12–14) were evaluated their in vitro antimicrobial properties against Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), Bacillus subtilis (NRRL-B-4219), Aspergillus niger (ATCC 16888), and C. albicans (ATCC 10231) and comparison with antibiotic drugs (Negram, Vancomycin, and Nystatin) as standards by use of an agar well-diffusion method (MacLowry et al., 1970; Othman et al., 2011; Rocha et al., 1995; Valgas et al., 2007).


RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Chemistry

The starting materials [khellinone 1 (Osman et al., 2012) and 3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes 2a–c (Jadhav et al., 2013)] were prepared according to the synthetic methods in Scheme 1.

Scheme 1. Synthesis of khellinone 1 and 3-substituted-1-phenyl-1H-pyrazole-4-carbaldehydes 2a–c.

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Scheme 2. Synthesis of 1H-pyrazolines (6–8), N-phenylpyrazolines (9–11), and N-acetylpyrazolines (12–14).

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The synthetic route used to synthesize the target series of pyrazolines incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties is outlined in Scheme 2. Chalcones 3–5 have synthesized via the condensation of khellinone 1 with pyrazole aldehydes 2a–c. Then, described a synthesis of 1H-pyrazolines 6–8, N-phenylpyrazolines 9–11, and N-acetylpyrazolines 12–14 via the cyclocondensation of 3–5 with hydrazine hydrate or phenyl hydrazine in refluxing ethanol or glacial acetic acid (Hassan et al., 2016) (Scheme 2).

Biological evaluations

In vitro antimicrobial activity

The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the synthesized compounds 3–14 against a panel of pathogenic tested organisms are represented in Table 1 and Figure 3. The results revealed that some synthesized derivatives exhibited excellent to moderate inhibitory effect.

In case of B. subtilis (G+), compound 11 [inhibition zone (IZ) = 20 mm] recorded excellent inhibitory effect and equipotent to the antibacterial reference drug (Vancomycin, IZ = 21 mm). Compounds (4, 7, 8, 9, 10, and 13) showed a moderate inhibitory effect and recorded IZ diameter ranged from 12 to 16 mm. On the other hand, the rest of compounds (3, 5, 6, 12, and 14) did not show any inhibitory effect.

In case of E. coli (G-), the two compounds 7 and 13 (IZ = 20 mm) showed more potent inhibitory effect in comparison to the antibacterial reference drug (Negram, IZ = 16 mm). Compounds (4, 9, 10, and 11) showed activity (IZ rang = 14–15 mm) nearly equal to the activity of the antibacterial drug used (Negram, IZ = 16 mm), while the other tested compounds have not any inhibition effect.

Table 1. In vitro antimicrobial (inhibition zone of growth IZ, mm) of chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14 against panel of pathogenic tested organisms.



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Figure 3. Antimicrobial activity of chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14 against panel of pathogenic tested organisms.

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By testing the compounds against C. albicans, compounds (4, 7, 10, 11, and 14) were more potent (IZ rang = 15–17 mm) than antifungal drug used (Nystatin, IZ = 14 mm). The two compounds (5 and 8) showed activity equal to antifungal drug used in this study (Nystatin, IZ = 14 mm). Also, the derivative 13 (IZ = 12 mm) showed a moderate inhibition effect.

In case of the pathogenic fungi, A. niger, compound 4 showed excellent inhibitory effect (IZ = 18 mm) more than (Nystatin, IZ = 15 mm). The four compounds (3, 5, 10, and 11) have activity equal to antifungal drug used (Nystatin, IZ = 15 mm). Also, compound 9 (IZ = 14 mm) showed moderate activity. The compounds (6–8 and 12–14) have not any activity.

Table 2. Lipinski’s rule of five for the compounds, chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14.



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Table 3. Drug likeness calculations of the compounds, chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14.



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Finally, we recommend for using compounds 7 and 13 in the treatment of Gram-negative pathogenic microorganisms, compound 11 in the treatment of Gram-positive, compound 10 in the treatment of C. albicans and compound 4 in the treatment of A. niger.

Pharmacokinetic properties and drug-likeness

Lipinski’s rule of five for the compounds, chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14

To qualify Chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14 as a drug candidate, the molecular weight (MW), lipophilicity (MLogP), the number of hydrogen bond acceptors (nHBA), donors (nHBD), and the number of rotatable bond (nRB) of Lipinski’s rule of five (Lipinski et al., 2001) were calculated using SwissADME web (http://swissadme.ch/index.php#undefined). The computed molecular properties are shown in Table 2.

Drug likeness calculations of the compounds, chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14

Molecular polar surface area (TPSA) is an affected parameter in the prediction of drug transport properties. Molecular volume was calculated by using the MolSoft website (http://molsoft.com/mprop/.). The percentage of absorption (%ABS) was calculated by using %ABS = 109 − (0.345 × TPSA) and referred to the degree of absorption (Desai et al., 2014).

Computed drug-likeness scores of the compounds, Chalcones 3–5 and pyrazolines 6–14 are presented in Table 3. Compound 3 has a negative value (DLS = −0.18) should not be considered as drug-like candidate. Compounds 7 and 13 possessed maximum drug-likeness model score (DLS) of 0.75 and 0.83, respectively.


CONCLUSION

In conclusion, we have synthesized a series of chalcones 3–5, 1H-pyrazolines 6–8, N-acetylpyrazolines 12–14 9–11, and N-acetylpyrazolines incorporating benzofuran and pyrazole moieties. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their in vitro antimicrobial activity. The evaluations showed that compounds 4, 7, 10, 11, and 13 were the most active compounds against a panel of pathogenic tested organisms. Also, the pharmacokinetic properties and calculation of drug likeness exhibited the two compounds 7 and 13 were found to be maximum DLS of 0.75 and 0.83, respectively.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors wish to express their thanks to the National Research Centre for the facilities provided.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

None.


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Jadhav SY, Shirame SP, Kulkarni SD, Patil SB, Pasale SK, Bhosale RB. PEG mediated synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of some fluoro substituted pyrazoline derivatives as antiinflammatory and analgesic agents. Bioorg Med Chem Lett, 2013; 23:2575. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bmcl.2013.02.105

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Kassem AF, Moustafa GO, Nossier ES, Khalaf HS, Mounier MM, Al-Yousef SA, Mahmoud SY. Design, synthesis, in vitro anticancer potentiality and molecular modeling study of novel amino acid derivatives based on n1, n3-bis (1-hydrazinyl-1- oxopropan-2-yl) isophthalamide. J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem, 2019; 34(1):1247-58. https://doi.org/10.1080/14756366.2019.1613390

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