Retinoids—A unique ingredient for skin rejuvenation employing novel drug delivery systems

Sneha Jateen Pradhan Ashwin Kuchekar Ashwini Gawade Sushil Kore   

Open Access   

Published:  May 07, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2024.168608

Millions of people around the world fall within the age group of 35 and above; having fluctuating lifestyles, increased exposure to blue light, and a faster-depleting ozone layer that enhances entry of UVA and UVB rays in the skin which tends to age faster leading into collagen degradation that results in fine lines and decreased cell senescence. The goal of skin rejuvenation is to have healthy skin. Cosmeceuticals incorporating retinoids have been increasingly used over the past few years to promote collagen synthesis and rejuvenate the skin. Photo-induced and chronological aging processes are decelerated with retinoid application that endorses skin elasticity by free radical neutralization, new cell growth, and blood vessel promotion within the skin to help fight pigmentation and reduce fine lines. Retinoids are commercially available as creams and serums for topical application. Nanotechnology is used in the development of retinoids to counteract adverse reactions like skin irritation and purging to improve its stability, efficacy, and acceptability. Emerging studies on retinoids include formulating them within liposomes, solid lipid nanoparticles, nano-emulgels, and hydrogels. This review details understanding the aging process, the mechanism of action of retinoids to counterfeit aging, and the potential use of nanotechnological delivery in cosmeceuticals.

Keyword:     Photoaging topical systems retinol nanoparticles nanodrug delivery liposomes


Pradhan SJ, Kuchekar A, Gawade A, Kore S. Retinoids—A unique ingredient for skin rejuvenation employing novel drug delivery systems. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2024. Online First.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


1. Yousef H, Alhajj M, Sharma S. Anatomy, skin (integument), epidermis. [Updated 2022 Nov 14]. [Internet]. Treasure Island, FL: StatPearls Publishing; 2023. Available from:

2. Chambers ES, Vukmanovic-Stejic M. Skin barrier immunity and ageing. Immunology. 2020 Jun;160(2):116-25.

3. Kim JC, Park TJ, Kang HY. Skin-aging pigmentation: who is the real enemy? Cells. 2022 Aug 16;11(16):2541.

4. Bonifant H, Holloway S. A review of the effects of ageing on skin integrity and wound healing. Br J Community Nurs. 2019 Mar 1;24(Sup3):S28-33.

5. Luna PC. Skin microbiome as years go by. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2020;21(Suppl 1):12-7.

6. Skowron K, Bauza-Kaszewska J, Kraszewska Z, WiktorczykKapischke N, Grudlewska-Buda K, Kwieci?ska-Piróg J, et al. Human skin microbiome: impact of intrinsic and extrinsic factors on skin microbiota. Microorganisms. 2021;9(3):543.

7. Grice EA, Kong HH, Conlan S, Deming CB, Davis J, Young AC, et al. Topographical and temporal diversity of the human skin microbiome. Science. 2009;324:1190-2.

8. Wong QYA, Chew FT. Defining skin aging and its risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2021 Nov 11;11(1):22075.

9. Campiche R, Curpen SJ, Lutchmanen-Kolanthan V, Gougeon S, Cherel M, Laurent G, et al. Pigmentation effects of blue light irradiation on skin and how to protect against them. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2020 Aug;42(4):399-406.

10. Schikowski T, Huls A. Air pollution and skin aging. Curr Environ Health Rep. 2020;7:58-64.

11. Gilchrest BA. Skin aging and photoaging: an overview. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989;21:610-3.

12. Gilchrest BA, Szabo G, Flynn E, Goldwyn RM. Chronologic and actinically induced aging in human facial skin. J Investig Dermatol. 1983;80:81s-5s.

13. He X, Wan F, Su W, Xie W. Research progress on skin aging and active ingredients. Molecules. 2023 Jul 20;28(14):5556.

14. Peng D. The Status quo of population aging and the development of the social security system in china. Chin Soc Secur Rev. 2023;7:31- 47. Chinese.

15. Farris P, Draelos ZD, Felipe de Oliveira Stehling L. Novel facial treatment regimen improves aging skin appearance. J Drugs Dermatol. 2021 Mar 1;20(3):274-8.

16. Dayan SH, Bacos JT, Ho TT, Gandhi ND, Gutierrez-Borst S, Kalbag A. Topical skin therapies in subjects undergoing full facial rejuvenation. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2019 Jun;18(3):798-805.

17. Sani BP, Hill DL. Structural characteristics of synthetic retinoids. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press; 1990. Vol. 189, pp 43-50, ISSN 0076-6879, ISBN 9780121820909.

18. Stratigos AJ, Katsambas AD. The role of topical retinoids in the treatment of photoaging. Drugs. 2005;65(8):1061-72.

19. Alaluf S, Heinrich U, Stahl W, Tronnier H, Wiseman S. Dietary carotenoids contribute to normal human skin color and UV photosensitivity. J Nutr. 2002;132:399-403.

20. Britton G, Liaaen-Jensen S, Pfander H. Carotenoids. Basel, Swtizerland: Birkhäuser; 2008.

21. Köpcke W, Krutmann J. Protection from sunburn with betacarotene-a meta-analysis. Photochem Photobiol. 2008;84:284-8.

22. Sies H, Stahl W. Nutritional protection against skin damage from sunlight. Annu Rev Nutr. 2004;24:173-200.

23. Bondi A, Sklan D. Vitamin A and carotene in animal nutrition. Prog Food Nutr Sci. 1984;8(1-2):165-91.

24. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 445354, retinol. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

25. Sadick N, Edison BL, John G, Bohnert KL, Green B. An advanced, physician-strength retinol peel improves signs of aging and acne across a range of skin types including melasma and skin of color. J Drugs Dermatol. 2019 Sep 1;18(9):918-23.

26. Sitohang IBS, Makes WI, Sandora N, Suryanegara J. Topical tretinoin for treating photoaging: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. Int J Womens Dermatol. 2022 Mar 25;8(1):e003.

27. Mukherjee S, Date A, Patravale V, Korting HC, Roeder A, Weindl G. Retinoids in the treatment of skin aging: an overview of clinical efficacy and safety. Clin Interv Aging. 2006;1(4):327-48.

28. Herndon JH Jr, Jiang LI, Kononov T, Fox T. An open label clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy and tolerance of a retinol and vitamin C facial regimen in women with mild-to-moderate hyperpigmentation and photodamaged facial skin. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Apr;15(4):476- 82.

29. Dhaliwal S, Rybak I, Ellis SR, Notay M, Trivedi M, Burney W, et al. Prospective, randomized, double-blind assessment of topical bakuchiol and retinol for facial photoageing. Br J Dermatol. 2019 Feb;180(2):289-96.

30. Oliveira MB, do Prado AH, Bernegossi J, Sato CS, Lourenço Brunetti I, Scarpa MV, et al. Topical application of retinyl palmitate-loaded nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of skin aging. Biomed Res Int. 2014;2014:632570.

31. Kong R, Cui Y, Fisher GJ, Wang X, Chen Y, Schneider LM, et al. A comparative study of the effects of retinol and retinoic acid on histological, molecular, and clinical properties of human skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2016 Mar;15(1):49-57.

32. Riahi RR, Bush AE, Cohen PR. Topical retinoids: therapeutic mechanisms in the treatment of photodamaged skin. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2016 Jun;17(3):265-76.

33. Fu JJ, Hillebrand GG, Raleigh P, Li J, Marmor MJ, Bertucci V, et al. A randomized, controlled comparative study of the wrinkle reduction benefits of a cosmetic niacinamide/peptide/retinyl propionate product regimen vs. a prescription 0.02% tretinoin product regimen. Br J Dermatol. 2010 Mar;162(3):647-54.

34. Gupta S, Bansal R, Gupta S, Jindal N, Jindal A. Nanocarriers and nanoparticles for skin care and dermatological treatments. Indian Dermatol Online J. 2013 Oct;4(4):267-72.

35. Bowler PJ. Impact on facial rejuvenation with dermatological preparations. Clin Interv Aging. 2009;4:81-9.

36. Nelson BR, Majmudar G, Griffiths CE, Gillard MO, Dixon AE, Tavakkol A, et al. Clinical improvement following dermabrasion of photoaged skin correlates with synthesis of collagen I. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130:1136-42.

37. Jager C, Brenner C, Habicht J, Wallic R. Bioactive reagents used in mesotherapy for skin rejuvenation in vivo induce diverse physiological processes in human skin fibroblasts in vitro-a pilot study. Exp Dermatol. 2011;21:70-80.

38. Baumann L. Skin ageing and its treatment. J Pathol. 2007;211:241- 51.

39. Sadick NS. Update on non-ablative light therapy for rejuvenation: a review. Lasers Surg Med. 2003;32:120-8.

40. Hardaway CA, Ross EV. Nonablative laser skin remodeling. Dermatol Clin. 2002;20:97-111, ix.

41. Ganceviciene R, Liakou AI, Theodoridis A, Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Skin anti-aging strategies. Dermatoendocrinol. 2012 Jul 1;4(3):308-19.

42. Camargo CP, Xia J, Costa CS, Gemperli R, Tatini MD, Bulsara MK, et al. Botulinum toxin type A for facial wrinkles. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Jul 5;7(7):CD011301.

43. Spencer JM. Microdermabrasion. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2005;6:89- 92.

44. Ross EV, Domankevitz Y. Hair removal with blended 755/1064 nm laser energy. Lasers Surg Med. 2021 Oct;53(8):1020-5.

45. Redfern CPF. Chapter one-vitamin A and its natural derivatives. In: Pohl E, editor. Methods in enzymology. Academic Press; 2020. Vol. 637, pp 1-25. ISSN 0076-6879, ISBN 9780128201442.

46. Kolli SS, Pecone D, Pona A, Cline A, Feldman SR. Topical retinoids in acne vulgaris: a systematic review. Am J Clin Dermatol. 2019 Jun;20(3):345-65.

47. Zasada M, Budzisz E. Retinoids: active molecules influencing skin structure formation in cosmetic and dermatological treatments. Postepy Dermatol Alergol. 2019 Aug;36(4):392-7.

48. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 444795, tretinoin. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine(US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

49. Milosheska D, Roškar R. Use of retinoids in topical antiaging treatments: a focused review of clinical evidence for conventional and nanoformulations. Adv Ther. 2022 Dec;39(12):5351-75.

50. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 5282379, isotretinoin. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

51. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 449171, alitretinoin. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

52. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 5282375, etretinate. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

53. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 5284513, acitretin. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

54. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 60164, adapalene. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

55. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 82146, bexarotene. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

56. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 5381, tazarotene. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

57. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 11518241, trifarotene. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

58. PubChem [Internet]. PubChem compound summary for CID 70691610, seletinoid G. Bethesda, MD: National Library of Medicine (US), National Center for Biotechnology Information; 2004 [cited 2023 Aug 26]. Available from:

59. Kafi R, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, Cho S, Hanft VN, Hamilton TA, et al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin A (retinol). Arch Dermatol. 2007 May;143(5):606-12.

60. Dobos G, Lichterfeld A, Blume-Peytavi U, Kottner J. Evaluation of skin ageing: a systematic review of clinical scales. Br J Dermatol. 2015;172:1249-61.

61. Krutmann J, Bouloc A, Sore G, Bernard BA, Passeron T. The skin aging exposome. J Dermatol Sci. 2017;85:152-61.

62. Puizina-Ivi? N. Skin aging. Acta Dermatovenerol Alp Pannonica Adriat. 2008 Jun;17(2):47-54.

63. Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. William J. Cunliffe scientific awards. Characteristics and pathomechanisms of endogenouslyaged skin. Dermatology. 2007;214:352-60.

64. Masaki H. Role of antioxidants in the skin: anti-aging effects. J Dermatol Sci. 2010;58(2):85-90. ISSN 0923-1811.

65. Zasada M, Budzisz E, Erkiert-Polguj A. A clinical anti-ageing comparative study of 0.3 and 0.5% retinol serums: a clinically controlled trial. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2020;33(2):102-16.

66. Cargnello M, Roux PP. Activation and function of the MAPKs and their substrates, the MAPK-activated protein kinases. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev. 2012 Jun;76(2):496.

67. Ostler EL, Wallis CV, Aboalchamat B, Faragher RG. Telomerase and the cellular lifespan: implications of the aging process. J Pediatr Endocrinol Metab. 2000;13(Suppl 6):1467-76.

68. Makrantonaki E, Zouboulis CC. Molecular mechanisms of skin aging: state of the art. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007;1119:40-50.

69. Dayan D, Abrahami I, Buchner A, Gorsky M, Chimovitz N. Lipid pigment (lipofuscin) in human perioral muscles with aging. Exp Gerontol. 1988;23(2):97-102.

70. Lever L, Kumar P, Marks R. Topical retinoic acid for treatment of solar damage. Br J Dermatol. 1990 Jan;122(1):91-8.

71. Morgado-Carrasco D, Gil-Lianes J, Jourdain E, Piquero-Casals J. Oral supplementation and systemic drugs for skin aging: a narrative review. Actas Dermosifiliogr. 2023 Feb;114(2):114-24.

72. Honeybrook A, Bernstein E. Oral isotretinoin and photoaging: a review. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Jul;19(7):1548-54.

73. Gold MH, Biron JA, Wilson A, Nelson DB. Efficacy and tolerability of a hyaluronic acid-based serum and a peptide-rich cream for the face and neck in subjects with photodamaged skin. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2022 Aug;21(8):3458-63.

74. Lalrengpuii J, Raza K, Mishra A, Shukla R. Retinoid nanoparticulates: approachable gateway for acne treatment. Health Sci Rev. 2022;2022:100042. ISSN 2772-6320.

75. Shin JW, Kwon SH, Choi JY, Na JI, Huh CH, Choi HR, et al. Molecular mechanisms of dermal aging and antiaging approaches. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Apr 29;20(9):2126.

76. Katsambas AD, Katoulis AC. Topical retinoids in the treatment of aging of the skin. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1999;455:477-82.

77. Zasada M, Budzisz E. Randomized parallel control trial checking the efficacy and impact of two concentrations of retinol in the original formula on the aging skin condition: pilot study. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2020 Feb;19(2):437-43.

78. Hernandez-Perez E, Khawaja HA, Alvarez TY. Oral isotretinoin as part of the treatment of cutaneous aging. Dermatol Surg. 2000 Jul;26(7):649-52.

79. Weiss JS, Ellis CN, Headington JT, Tincoff T, Hamilton TA, Voorhees JJ. Topical tretinoin improves photoaged skin. A doubleblind vehicle-controlled study. JAMA. 1988 Jan 22-29;259(4):527- 32.

80. Essendoubi M, Gobinet C, Reynaud R, Angiboust JF, Manfait M, Piot O. Human skin penetration of hyaluronic acid of different molecular weights as probed by Raman spectroscopy. Skin Res Technol. 2016 Feb;22(1):55-62.

81. Leyden JJ, Grove GL, Grove MJ, Thorne EG, Lufrano L. Treatment of photodamaged facial skin with topical tretinoin. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1989 Sep;21(3 Pt 2):638-44.

82. Draelos ZD, Peterson INR A double-blind, comparative clinical study of newly formulated retinol serums vs tretinoin cream in escalating doses: a method for rapid retinization with minimized irritation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020 Jun 1;19(6):625-31.

83. Fisher GJ, Datta SC, Talwar HS, Wang ZQ, Varani J, Kang S, et al. Molecular basis of sun-induced premature skin ageing and retinoid antagonism. Nature. 1996 Jan 25;379(6563):335-9.

84. Oddos T, Roure R, Leyden J, Bruère V, Bertin C. A placebocontrolled study demonstrates the long-lasting anti-aging benefits of a cream containing retinol, dihydroxymethylchromone (DMC) and hyaluronic acid. J Cosmet Dermatol Sci Appl. 2012;02(02):051-9.

85. Kaufman J, Callender V, Young C, Jones P, Wortzman M, Nelson D. Efficacy and tolerability of a retinoid eye cream for fine to moderate wrinkles of the periorbital region. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Sep 1;21(9):932-7.

86. Babilas P, Knie U, Abels C. Cosmetic and dermatologic use of alpha hydroxy acids. J Dtsch Dermatol Ges. 2012 Jul;10(7):488- 91.

87. Farris P, Zeichner J, Berson D. Efficacy and tolerability of a skin brightening/anti-aging cosmeceutical containing retinol 0.5%, niacinamide, hexylresorcinol, and resveratrol. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Jul 1;15(7):863-8

88. Shariff R, Du Y, Dutta M, Kumar S 5th, Thimmaiah S, Doraiswamy C, et al. Superior even skin tone and anti-ageing benefit of a combination of 4-hexylresorcinol and niacinamide. Int J Cosmet Sci. 2022 Feb;44(1):103-17.

89. Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA. Niacinamide: a B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2005 Jul;31(7 Pt 2):860-5; discussion 865.

90. Baxter RA. Anti-aging properties of resveratrol: review and report of a potent new antioxidant skin care formulation. J Cosmet Dermatol. 2008 Mar;7(1):2-7.

91. Ratz-?yko A, Arct J. Resveratrol as an active ingredient for cosmetic and dermatological applications: a review. J Cosmet Laser Ther. 2019;21(2):84-90.

92. Schlessinger J, Saxena S, Mohr S. Assessment of a novel anti-aging hand cream. J Drugs Dermatol. 2016 Apr;15(4):496-503

93. Piérard-Franchimont C, Castelli D, Cromphaut IV, Bertin C, Ries G, Cauwenbergh G, et al. Tensile properties and contours of aging facial skin. A controlled double-blind comparative study of the effects of retinol, melibiose-lactose and their association. Skin Res Technol. 1998 Nov;4(4):237-43.

94. Stern RS, Rosa F, Baum C. Isotretinoin and pregnancy. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1984 May;10(5 Pt 1):851-4.

95. Mondal D, Shenoy SR, Mishra S. Retinoic acid embryopathy. Int J Appl Basic Med Res. 2017 Oct-Dec;7(4):264-5.

96. Chaudhary M, Khan A, Gupta M. Skin ageing: pathophysiology and current market treatment approaches. Curr Aging Sci. 2020;13(1):22- 30.

97. Raszewska-Famielec M, Flieger J. Nanoparticles for topical application in the treatment of skin dysfunctions-an overview of dermo-cosmetic and dermatological products. Int J Mol Sci. 2022 Dec 15;23(24):15980.

98. Gupta V, Mohapatra S, Mishra H, Farooq U, Kumar K, Ansari MJ, et al. Nanotechnology in cosmetics and cosmeceuticals-a review of latest advancements. Gels. 2022;8:173.

99. Shah KA, Date AA, Joshi MD, Patravale VB. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) of tretinoin: potential in topical delivery. Int J Pharm. 2007 Dec 10;345(1-2):163-71.

100. Patzelt A, Mak WC, Jung S, Knorr F, Meinke MC, Richter H, et al. Do nanoparticles have a future in dermal drug delivery? J Control Release. 2017;246:174-82.

101. Fex G, Johannesson G. Retinol transfer across and between phospholipid bilayer membranes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1988 Oct 6;944(2):249-55.

102. Chmykh YG, Nadeau JL. Characterization of retinol stabilized in phosphatidylcholine vesicles with and without antioxidants. ACS Omega. 2020;5:18367-75.

103. Pisetpackdeekul P, Supmuang P, Pan-In P, Banlunara W, Limcharoen B, Kokpol C, et al. Proretinal nanoparticles: stability, release, efficacy, and irritation. Int J Nanomedicine. 2016 Jul 21;11:3277- 86.

104. Handler M, Adams-Woodford A, Ayres P, Giancola G, Diaz I. Facial aging improvement case study using a novel combination of retinol, niacinamide, and Terminalia chebula. J Drugs Dermatol. 2022 Jul 1;21(7):784-8.

105. Pena-Rodríguez E, Moreno MC, Blanco-Fernandez B, González J, Fernández-Campos F. Epidermal delivery of retinyl palmitate loaded transfersomes: penetration and biodistribution studies. Pharmaceutics. 2020;12:112.

106. Blasi P, Giovagnoli S, Schoubben A, Ricci M, Rossi C. Solid lipid nanoparticles for targeted brain drug delivery. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2007 Jul 10;59(6):454-77.

107. Pardeike J, Hommoss A, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles (SLN, NLC) in cosmetic and pharmaceutical dermal products. Int J Pharm. 2009;366:170-84.

108. Müller RH, Radtke M, Wissing SA. Solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) and nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) in cosmetic and dermatological preparations. Adv Drug Deliv Rev. 2002 Nov 1;54(Suppl 1):S131-55.

109. Morales JO, Valdés K, Morales J, Oyarzun-Ampuero F. Lipid nanoparticles for the topical delivery of retinoids and derivatives. Nanomedicine (Lond). 2015 Jan;10(2):253-69.

110. Souto EB, Müller RH. Lipid nanoparticles: effect on bioavailability and pharmacokinetic changes. Handb Exp Pharmacol. 2010;(197):115-41.

111. Pople PV, Singh KK. Development and evaluation of topical formulation containing solid lipid nanoparticles of vitamin A. AAPS PharmSciTech. 2006;7(4):91.

112. Puglia C, Bonina F. Lipid nanoparticles as novel delivery systems for cosmetics and dermal pharmaceuticals. Exp Opin Drug Deliv. 2012;9(4):429-41.

113. Jun SH, Kim H, Lee H, Song JE, Park SG, Kang NG. Synthesis of retinol-loaded lipid nanocarrier via vacuum emulsification to improve topical skin delivery. Polymers (Basel). 2021 Mar 8;13(5):826.

114. Chen L, Tan F, Wang J, Liu F. Microemulsion: a novel transdermal delivery system to facilitate skin penetration of indomethacin. Pharmazie. 2012 Apr;67(4):319-23.

115. Park H, Mun S, Kim YR. UV and storage stability of retinol contained in oil-in-water nanoemulsions. Food Chem. 2019 Jan 30;272:404- 10.

116. Moghimipour E, Salimi A, Leis F. Preparation and evaluation of tretinoin microemulsion based on pseudo-ternary phase diagram. Adv Pharm Bull. 2012;2(2):141-7.

117. Špaglová M, Papadakos M, ?uchorová M, Matušová D. Release of tretinoin solubilized in microemulsion from carbopol and xanthan gel: in vitro versus ex vivo permeation study. Polymers (Basel). 2023 Jan 9;15(2):329.

118. Algahtani MS, Ahmad MZ, Ahmad J. Nanoemulgel for improved topical delivery of retinyl palmitate: formulation design and stability evaluation. Nanomaterials (Basel). 2020 Apr 28;10(5):848.

119. Manconi M, Sinico C, Valenti D, Lai F, Fadda AM. Niosomes as carriers for tretinoin: III. A study into the in vitro cutaneous delivery of vesicle-incorporated tretinoin. Int J Pharm. 2006;311(1-2):11-9.

Article Metrics
109 Views 25 Downloads 134 Total



Related Search

By author names