The recent research on bio-systems at the nano-scale and the nanotechnology has created one of the most dynamic science and technology domains at the confluence of physical sciences, molecular engineering, biology, biotechnology and medicine. This domain includes better understanding of living and thinking systems, revolutionary biotechnology processes,synthesis of new drugs and their targeted delivery, regenerative medicine, neuromorphic engineering and developing a sustainable environment. Nano bio-systems research is a priority in many countries and its relevance within nanotechnology is expected to increase in the future. The reduction of drug particles into the sub-micron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. There has been a considerable research interest in the area of developing drug delivery using nanoparticles (NP’s) as carriers for small and large molecules. Targeting delivery of drugs to the diseased lesions is one of the most important aspects of drug delivery system. They have been used in-vivo to protect the drug entity in the systemic circulation, restrict access of the drug to the chosen sites and to deliver the drug at a controlled and sustained rate to this site of action. Various polymers have been used in the formulation of nanoparticles for drug delivery research to increase therapeutic benefit, while minimizing the side-effects. This review article presents the most outstanding contributions in the field of nanotechnology as drug delivery system. Pharmaceutical nanotechnology based systems, methods of preparation, applications, advantages and disadvantages.
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