Review Article | Volume: 14, Issue: 4, April, 2024

The review on medicinal herbs in the treatment of gout through xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity: Call for more research strategy in the future

Ung Quang Le   

Open Access   

Published:  Apr 05, 2024

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2024.16031
Abstract

Medicinal herbs, as their derivative phytocompounds are increasingly demonstrated as beneficial complementary treatments for gout. An extensive volume of in vitro and in vivo investigations has reported the beneficial effects of herbal medicines on xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity and reducing uric acid. Here, we briefly review studies that investigated herbs and their chemical components for gout management. In addition, we also discuss and recommend traditional medicine opinions on the research strategy for gout treatment. This review should provide insightful knowledge support for the evidence-based application of herbal medicines in gout treatment.


Keyword:     Xanthine oxidase inhibition gout uric acid herbal medicine


Citation:

Le UQ. The review on medicinal herbs in the treatment of gout through xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity: Call for more research strategy in the future. J Appl Pharm Sci. 2024;14(04):001–013. http://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2024.16031

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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INTRODUCTION

Gout is a kind of inflammatory arthritis in which uric acid crystals accumulate in the joints, especially in the knee, ankle, wrist, finger, and elbow [1]. Xanthine oxidase (XO), a key enzyme in purine catabolism, catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid in the body, but overformulation of uric acid may lead to hyperuricemia [2]. Late complications of long-term acute gout may induce poly-articular or oligo-articular gout, which is one of the most throbbing and painful conditions in humans [3]. Furthermore, gout patients have a higher risk of cardiovascular disorders as well [4,5]. One of the major strategies in the control of uric acid overproduction in gout treatment and its complications is that many new antihyperuricemic drugs have been synthesized and invented recently. However, some uric acid-lowering drugs have clinically toxic side effects. Hence, natural products have been considered to investigate their beneficial promotion. Bioactive natural chemical components are potential candidates with a safe, effective, and potential inhibitory effect on XO activity that stimulates uric acid production. Normally, there is a lack of systematic reviews about medicinal herbs and their chemical compounds with antihyperuricemic and anti-gout valuables. In this work, we attempted to review and summarize (1) the XO inhibitory capacity of herbal crude extracts, (2) the antihyperuricemic and antigout effects of purified chemical compounds in vitro and vivo, and (3) the molecular docking mechanism of the active chemical compounds and their derivatives focusing on XO inhibitory activities. Further research strategy for gout treatment therapy is still recommended.


MATERIALS AND METHODOLOGY

In this work, we used XO, uric acid, and gout as the keywords to collect information related to gout investigations from Web of Science, Science Direct, Springer, Google Scholar, PubMed, and other professional websites. This review summarizes and evaluates the gout treatment properties of medicinal herbs reported in the literature.


IN VITRO STUDIES

XO inhibitory capacity of herbal crude extracts

Investigations of medicinal plants have uncovered a number of anti-gouts. González et al. [6] reported the XO inhibitory activity of 34 crude extracts from species belonging to the Celastraceae and Lamiaceae. The 26 species from 18 families utilized for gout treatment in northeastern North America have been shown to have XO inhibitory capacity [7]. Over a hundred Chinese medicinal plants have been evaluated for antigout [8]. In other works, a number of herbal medicines have also been reported for XO inhibitory potency [923]. Interestingly, in all candidates, 46 herbs with outstanding XO inhibitory potency have been organized and listed in Table 1. However, many herbs in this group had not been investigated on pharmacological mechanisms, kinetics, in vivo and in silico, and clinically related to anti-gout activity.

XO inhibitory capacity of chemical compounds from herbal medicines

The chemical composition of herbal medicines for gout treatment has been studied for some recent decades. The phytochemical studies on XO inhibitory capacity have resulted in the isolation of hundreds of compounds. In all candidates, 85 chemical compounds with the lowest haft maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of XO inhibitory activity from a series of studies have been displayed in Table 2. The chemical compound group exhibited the highest potency with an IC50 < 1 μM. It included 2′,4′-dimethoxy-4,5′,6′-trihydroxychalcone (IC50 0.21 μM), neotaiwanensol B (IC50 0.28 μM), eupatilin (IC50 0.37 μM), chrysoeriol (IC50 0.5 μM), hyprhombin C (IC50 0.6 μM), apparicine (IC50 0.65 μM), and luteolin (IC50 1.2 μM). The isolated compound chemical structures are shown in Figure 1.

In serial other studies, XO inhibitory activity has also been evaluated. Baicalin and baicalein are the key XO inhibitory compounds of scutellariae radix [60]. The total alkaloids of nelumbinis folium inhibited XO with an IC50 of 3.313 μg/ml [61]. Flavonol glycosides of Allium cepa L. displayed XO inhibitory activity with an IC50 from 10.5 to 20.8 μg/ml [62]. Hoshani et al. [63] reported that leaf extracts of Physalis alkekengi at the green fruit stage exhibited higher XO inhibitory efficacy compared to the vegetative stage (86.86% and 45% at the concentration of 0.3 mg/ml, respectively). The underlying mechanisms of curcumin in preventing XO have been elucidated via studies on the molecular docking simulations [64]. The XO inhibitory effects of the main phenols of pickled radish have been characterized by molecular docking stimulated by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonds and elucidated by molecular dynamics [65]. Betacyanin from Hylocereus undatus rind exhibited an XO inhibitory effect with an IC50 of 9 mM. Kinetics study and docking analysis for the XO inhibitory mechanism of betacyanin were also proved [66]. Du and Li [67] revealed that porphyra polysaccharide is capable of XO inhibitory activity through study on enzyme kinetics and molecular docking. The XO inhibitory mechanism of other natural products had also been evidenced revealed via fluorescence titration, molecular level interaction of chemical compounds with the amino acid residues, such as black rice anthocyanins [68]; chrysoerial [69]; monoterpenoids and flavonoid aglycones of Chrysanthemum morifolium [70]; flavonoids of Gardenia oudiepe [71]; Chrysanthemum moriforlium [72]; Quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and chlorogenic acid obtained from Smilax china L. exhibited strong XO inhibitory capacity through kinetics and mechanism analysis [73]; luteolin [74]; Genistein from soybean [75]; atherospermidine and cyathocaline extracted from Alphonsea cylindrica and Alphonsea elliptica [76]; malic acid [77]; Eugenol, a marker component of clove [78]; benzofuran from Viburnum grandiflorum with an IC50 value of 0.59 μM) [79]; quercetin from Erodium birandianum [80]; catechin, epicatechin, gallic acid, and ellagic acid from acetone extract of Vicia faba L. seeds [81]; and 6-(3-methylbut-1-enyl)-5,7-dimethoxy-4′-hydroxy flavone from Spilanthes calva [82].


IN VIVO STUDIES

Moringa oleifera hydrolysate at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the serum uric acid level of hyperuricemic rats by regulating serum XO activity [83]. For Paeonia suffruticosa leaf extract, it effectively decreased increased serum uric acid in hyperuricemic mice. Insure evidence indicated the effects of protecting against renal damage and oxidative stress induced by hyperuricemia of apigenin 7-O-glucoside in mouse models [84]. It has been reported that extract of Rhizoma Alpiniae officinarum has hypouricemic and renal protective effects on hyperuricemic mice by XO inhibitory activity, down-regulating URAT1 and GLUT9, which is similar to the study on XO inhibitory activity of Saengmaeksan formulation including of Panax ginseng reported by Sung et al. [85]. Galangin, kaempferide, and 3-methoxyl-glangin are its marker XO inhibitors [86]. The mixture of methanol extracts of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata, and Gardenia jasminosides reduced serum urate levels in hyperuricemic mice [87]. Interestingly, Huang et al. [88] reported that genistein, apigenin, quercetin, rutin, and astilbin exhibited insignificant effects on XO activity in vitro, but these compounds decreased serum uric acid levels in mice. The XO inhibitory effect of Lobetyolin, being a main bioactive chemical compound of Codonopnis plants, had been reported by Yoon and Cho [89]. It is revealed that lobetyolin exhibited weekly inhibitory XO capacity through a mixed-type mechanism, but it significantly decreased liver XO activity with a dose of 50 mg/kg in rats. The ethanol extract of Campomanesia velutina and its isolated myricitrin were demonstrated to be able to decrease serum uric acid levels and inhibit hepatic XO activity [90]. The Christia vespertilionis leaf aqueous extract induces a decrease in uric acid levels (31.95%) in mice at a dose of 200 mg/kg [22]. Many other studies on antigout activity in in vivo models of medicinal herbs and phytochemical compounds resulted in strong antigout benefits. All results indicated that evaluated herbal extracts exhibited no damage to the liver and kidney in hyperuricemic rats and inhibited excessive uric acid levels, which includes Artemisia selengensis leaf extracts [91]; theaflavin with an IC50 of 63.17 μM [92]; lemon-peel extract [93]; and green tea polyphenols [94], which may suggest an attractive strategy for antigout therapy.


SCIENCE OPINION AND RESEARCH STRATEGY

Former studies have shown that the pathogenesis of hyperuricemia in the blood is closely related to metabolism, immunity, and inflammation. Traditional medicine considers weaknesses in the liver, spleen, and kidneys as the principal causes of an increase in uric acid. In addition, the “military prieshood theory” is the primary principle of the control composition, which is modeled following the rule of the ancient monarchy system. In traditional medicine, this principle is applied, and each ingredient plays a particular role in treating the whole harmony and balance. The use of medicinal herbs, herbal extracts, and chemical compounds may contribute to the lower incidence of hyperuricemia. However, the fundamental principle in the treatment therapy of gout is to improve and restore liver, renal, and spleen function. Although kinetic studies and molecular docking analysis have been evidenced, there have not been any investigations in vivo on pharmacokinetics or internal metabolism in humans in a long time. Based on the above arguments, there is an urgent need to establish a comprehensive strategy for preventing and treating gout disease, which includes additional clinical trials with longer study periods on humans to certify the anti-gout potential of herbal medicine and case studies are also encouraged and called for in the future.

Table 1. XO inhibitory capacity of herbal crude extracts.

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Table 2. XO inhibitory capacity of chemical compounds from herbal medicines.

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Figure 1. Chemical structures of compounds.

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CONCLUSION

Gout has attracted considerable attention because it causes serious health damage and affects human life quality. Serial pharmacological studies have been investigated in vitro and also developed in vivo in rat models. Though several pharmacological mechanisms and kinetics-related XO inhibitory activities of independent herbal derivative extracts and chemical compounds have already been achieved as emerging evidence, the more comprehensive pharmacological mechanisms of synergistic combinations of herbs and chemical components with each other need to be elucidated. Moreover, we are concerned that the medical resistance phenomenon is very likely when used for a long time; therefore, firm evidence for more clinical studies and applications needs to be elucidated in order to form an effective gout therapeutic formula of herbal medicine.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

This work was supported by a project belonging to the Science and Technology program of the Ministry of Education and Training (No. CT2020.03.TNA 04).


AUTHOR CONTRIBUTIONS

All authors made substantial contributions to conception and design, acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; took part in drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; agreed to submit to the current journal; gave final approval of the version to be published; and agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work. All the authors are eligible to be an author as per the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) requirements/guidelines.


FINANCIAL SUPPORT

This word was supported by the project (No. CT2020.03.TNA.04).


CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The author has no relevant financial or nonfinancial interests to disclose.


ETHICAL APPROVAL

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included in this research article.


PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


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