Proficiency and implementation associated with noncommunicable diseases among secondary school students in Bangladesh

Farhana Akter Adnan Mannan Nasrin Lipi Nor Azlina A. Rahman Halyna Lugova Md Ahsanul Haq Mainul Haque   

Open Access   

Published:  Jul 01, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.149480

The burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is growing swiftly in low-resourced countries. In Bangladesh, a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles has been observed among its population. This study aimed to measure the knowledge and practices related to NCDs and associated factors among Bangladeshi secondary school-going students. A cross-sectional study was conducted among secondary students from all administrative regions. Data were collected through questionnaires in-person, over telephone interviews, and online surveys. Data were analyzed descriptively by frequencies and percentages. The Pearson chi-square test was used to examine the association between the variables. A multiple logistic regression model was introduced to identify the predictors of healthy lifestyle practices. A total of 1,744 students were included in this study. Several gaps in knowledge and insufficient healthy practices were revealed. In the multiple linear regression analysis, the type of school, place of residence, parent’s educational level, and monthly income accounted for variability in the level of knowledge about NCDs. Gender, type of school, and monthly income were independent predictors of healthy lifestyle practices. Health educational programs on risk factors of NCDs and healthy lifestyles should be incorporated into the core school curriculum of all schools in Bangladesh. The programs should target economically disadvantaged populations and ethnic minorities to address social inequalities.

Keyword:     Non-infectious diseases comprehension make use of secondary school students adolescents teenagers Bangladesh


Akter F, Mannan A, Lipi N, Rahman NAA, Lugova H, Haq MA, Haque M. Proficiency and implementation associated with non-communicable diseases among secondary school students in Bangladesh. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2023. Online First.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Afshin A, Micha R, Webb M, Capewell S, Whitsel L, Rubinstein A, Prabhakaran D, Suhrcke M, Mozaffarian D. Effectiveness of dietary policies to reduce noncommunicable diseases. In: Prabhakaran D, Anand S, Gaziano TA, Mbanya JC, Wu Y, Nugent R (eds). Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders, 3rd edition, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development/The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017.

Ahammed T, Ahmed NU, Uddin MJ. Changes in prevalence, and factors associated with tobacco use among Bangladeshi school students: evidence from two nationally representative surveys. BMC Public Health, 2021; 21(1):579.

Akazili J, McIntyre D, Kanmiki EW, Gyapong J, Oduro A, Sankoh O, Ataguba JE. Assessing the catastrophic effects of out-of-pocket healthcare payments prior to the uptake of a nationwide health insurance scheme in Ghana. Glob Health Action, 2017; 10(1):1289735.

Akseer N, Mehta S, Wigle J, Chera R, Brickman ZJ, Al-Gashm S, Sorichetti B, Vandermorris A, Hipgrave DB, Schwalbe N, Bhutta ZA. Non-communicable diseases among adolescents: current status, determinants, interventions, and policies. BMC Public Health, 2020; 20(1):1908.

Alamnia TT, Tesfaye W, Abrha S, Kelly M. Metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open, 2021; 11(11):e049565.

Alexander GC, Casalino LP, Meltzer DO. Patient-physician communication about out-of-pocket costs. JAMA, 2003; 290(7):953–8.

Al-Kibria GM, Gupta RD, Nayeem J. Prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension among Bangladeshi adults: an analysis of demographic and health survey 2017-18. Clin Hypertens, 2021; 27(1):17.

Allen LN, Fox N, Ambrose A. Quantifying research output on poverty and non-communicable disease behavioral risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a bibliometric analysis. BMJ Open, 2017b; 7(11):e014715.

Allen L, Williams J, Townsend N, Mikkelsen B, Roberts N, Foster C, Wickramasinghe K. Socioeconomic status and non-communicable disease behavioral risk factors in low-income and lower-middle-income countries: a systematic review. Lancet Glob Health, 2017a; 5(3):e277–89.

Amarasekara P, de Silva A, Swarnamali H, Senarath U, Katulanda P. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices on lifestyle and cardiovascular risk factors among metabolic syndrome patients in an Urban Tertiary Care Institute in Sri Lanka. Asia Pac J Public Health, 2016; 28(1 Suppl):32S–40S.

Arafa AE, Anzengruber F, Mostafa AM, Navarini AA. Perspectives of online surveys in dermatology. J Eur Acad Dermatol Venereol, 2019; 3(3):511–20.

Aung MN, Lorga T, Srikrajang J, Promtingkran N, Kreuangchai S, Tonpanya W, Vivarakanon P, Jaiin P, Praipaksin N, Payaprom A. Assessing awareness and knowledge of hypertension in an at-risk population in the Karen ethnic rural community, Thasongyang, Thailand. Int J Gen Med, 2012; 5:553–61.

Azul AM, Almendra R, Quatorze M, Loureiro A, Reis F, Tavares R, Mota-Pinto A, Cunha A, Rama L, Malva JO, Santana P, Ramalho-Santos J, HeaLIQs4Cities consortium. Unhealthy lifestyles, environment, well-being, and health capability in rural neighborhoods: a community-based cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health, 2021; 21(1):1628.

Bandoh DA, Sunkwa-Mills G, Ernest K. Are risk factors for non-communicable diseases in adolescents a problem in senior high schools in Accra? Ghana Med J, 2020; 54(2 Suppl):59–63.

Barman MP, Hazarika J, Kalita A. reliability and validity of Assamese version of EORTC QLQ-C30 questionnaire for studying the quality of life of cancer patients of Assam. World Appl Sci J, 2012; 17(5):672–8. Available via

Bassi S, Bahl D, Harrell MB, Jain N, Kandasamy A, Salunke SR, Shah VG, Raghunathan P, Markandan S, Murthy P, Arora M. Knowledge, attitude, and behaviors on diet, physical activity, and tobacco use among school students: a cross-sectional study in two Indian states. F1000Res, 2021; 10:544.

Batal M, Steinhouse L, Delisle H. The nutrition transition and the double burden of malnutrition. Med Sante Trop, 2018; 28(4):345–50.

Bere E, van Lenthe F, Klepp KI, Brug J. Why do parents’ education level and income affect the amount of fruits and vegetables adolescents eat? Eur J Public Health, 2008; 18(6):611–5.

Bernabé-Ortiz A, Carrillo-Larco RM, Gilman RH, Checkley W, Smeeth L, Miranda JJ, CRONICAS Cohort Study Group. Impact of urbanization and altitude on the incidence of, and risk factors for, hypertension. Heart, 2017; 103(11):827–33.

Bhagat V, Haque M, Simbak NB, Jaalam K. Study on personality dimension negative emotionality affecting academic achievement among Malaysian medical students studying in Malaysia and overseas. Adv Med Educ Pract, 2016; 7:341–6.

Bhatt G, Goel S. Using non-communicable disease clinics for tobacco cessation: a promising perspective. Natl Med J India, 2018; 31(3):172–5.

Billingsley HE, Carbone S, Lavie CJ. Dietary fats and chronic non-communicable diseases. Nutrients, 2018; 10(10):1385.

Biswas T, Pervin S, Tanim MIA, Niessen L, Islam A. Bangladesh policy on prevention and control of non-communicable diseases: a policy analysis. BMC Public Health, 2017; 17(1):582.

Biswas T, Townsend N, Islam MS, Islam MR, Das Gupta R, Das SK, Mamun AA. Association between socioeconomic status and prevalence of non-communicable diseases risk factors and comorbidities in Bangladesh: findings from a nationwide cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 2019; 9(3):e025538

Boutayeb A. The double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg, 2006; 100(3):191–9.

Boutayeb A, Boutayeb S. The burden of non-communicable diseases in developing countries. Int J Equity Health, 2005; 4(1):2.

Bruins MJ, Van Dael P, Eggersdorfer M. The role of nutrients in reducing the risk for non-communicable diseases during aging. Nutrients, 2019; 11(1):85.

Budreviciute A, Damiati S, Sabir DK, Onder K, Schuller-Goetzburg P, Plakys G, Katileviciute A, Khoja S, Kodzius R. Management and prevention strategies for non-communicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors. Front Public Health, 2020; 8:574111.

Burki TK. Tobacco consumption in Bangladesh. Lancet Oncol, 2019; 20(4):478.

Chang FC, Chiu CH, Chen PH, Miao NF, Lee CM, Chiang JT, Pan YC. Relationship between parental and adolescent eHealth literacy and online health information seeking in Taiwan. Cyberpsychol Behav Soc Netw, 2015; 18(10):618–24.

Chowdhury MZI, Rahman M, Akter T, Akhter T, Ahmed A, Shovon MA, Farhana Z, Chowdhury N, Turin TC. Hypertension prevalence and its trend in Bangladesh: evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Hypertens, 2020; 26:10.

Crimmins EM, Shim H, Zhang YS, Kim JK. Differences between men and women in mortality and the health dimensions of the morbidity process. Clin Chem, 2019; 65(1):135–45.

Cunningham PJ. High medical cost burdens, patient trust, and perceived quality of care. J Gen Intern Med, 2009; 24(3):415–20.

Datta BK, Husain MJ, Husain MM, Kostova D. Non-communicable disease-attributable medical expenditures, household financial stress and impoverishment in Bangladesh. SSM Popul Health, 2018; 6:252–8.

Dayal R, Kumar P, Garg N, Kumar D, Sinha V. Sleep disorders and their effect on academic performance in school going children. Indian J Pediatr, 2017; 84(6):487–8.

de Groot R, van den Hurk K, Schoonmade LJ, de Kort WLAM, Brug J, Lakerveld J. Urban-rural differences in the association between blood lipids and characteristics of the built environment: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Glob Health, 2019; 4(1):e001017.

Desai R, Mercken LAG, Ruiter RAC, Schepers J, Reddy PS. Cigarette smoking and reasons for leaving school among school dropouts in South Africa. BMC Public Health, 2019; 19(1):130.

Dhungana RR, Bista B, Pandey AR, de Courten M. Prevalence, clustering and sociodemographic distributions of non-communicable disease risk factors in Nepalese adolescents: secondary analysis of a nationwide school survey. BMJ Open, 2019; 9(5):e028263.

Dong R, Leung C, Naert MN, Naanyu V, Kiptoo P, Matelong W, Matini E, Orango V, Bloomfield GS, Edelman D, Fuster V, Manyara S, Menya D, Pastakia SD, Valente T, Kamano J, Horowitz CR, Vedanthan R. Chronic disease stigma, skepticism of the health system, and socioeconomic fragility: qualitative assessment of factors impacting receptiveness to group medical visits and microfinance for non-communicable disease care in rural Kenya. PLoS One, 2021; 16(6):e0248496.

Freisling H, Viallon V, Lennon H, Bagnardi V, Ricci C, Butterworth AS, Sweeting M, Muller D, Romieu I, Bazelle P, Kvaskoff M, Arveux P, Severi G, Bamia C, Kühn T, Kaaks R, Bergmann M, Boeing H, Tjønneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Dahm CC, Menéndez V, Agudo A, Sánchez MJ, Amiano P, Santiuste C, Gurrea AB, Tong TYN, Schmidt JA, Tzoulaki I, Tsilidis KK, Ward H, Palli D, Agnoli C, Tumino R, Ricceri F, Panico S, Picavet HSJ, Bakker M, Monninkhof E, Nilsson P, Manjer J, Rolandsson O, Thysell E, Weiderpass E, Jenab M, Riboli E, Vineis P, Danesh J, Wareham NJ, Gunter MJ, Ferrari P. Lifestyle factors and risk of multimorbidity of cancer and cardiometabolic diseases: a multinational cohort study. BMC Med, 2020; 18(1):5.

Gamage AU, Jayawardana PL. Knowledge of non-communicable diseases and practices related to healthy lifestyles among adolescents in state schools of a selected educational division in Sri Lanka. BMC Public Health, 2017; 18(1):64.

Gassasse Z, Smith D, Finer S, Gallo V. Association between urbanization and type 2 diabetes: an ecological study. BMJ Glob Health, 2017; 2(4):e000473.

GBD Chronic Respiratory Disease Collaborators. Prevalence and attributable health burden of chronic respiratory diseases, 1990-2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017. Lancet Respir Med, 2020; 8(6):585–96.

Goh EV, Azam-Ali S, McCullough F, Roy Mitra S. The nutrition transition in Malaysia; key drivers and recommendations for improved health outcomes. BMC Nutr, 2020; 6:32.

Golestani M, Sadeghi-Bazargani H, Saadati M, Farahbakhsh M, Dalal K. Lifestyle risk factor assessment through WHO STEP approach in Tabriz, Iran. Clinicoecon Outcomes Res, 2021; 13:487–92.

Habib MA, Chowdhury AI, Hossen K, Kibria T, Hossain M. Fast food intake and prevalence of overweight/obesity in students: do eating habits have a differential impact on gender? J Contemp Med Res, 2020; 7:F4–9.

Haque M, McKimm J, Sartelli M, Samad N, Haque SZ, Bakar MA. A narrative review of the effects of sugar-sweetened beverages on human health: a key global health issue. J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol, 2020; 27(1):e76–103.

Haque M, Rahman NA, Majumder MA, Haque SZ, Kamal ZM, Islam Z, Haque AE, Rahman NI, Alattraqchi AG. Internet use and addiction among medical students of Universiti Sultan Zainal Abidin, Malaysia. Psychol Res Behav Manag, 2016; 9:297–307.

Hardy LL, Mihrshahi S, Bellew W, Bauman A, Ding D. Children’s adherence to health behavior recommendations associated with reducing risk of non-communicable disease. Prev Med Rep, 2017; 8:279–85.

Hasan AMR, Rashid MH, Smith G, Selim MA, Rasheed S. Challenges of promoting physical activity among school children in urban Bangladesh: a qualitative inquiry. PLoS One, 2020; 15(3):e0230321.

Hilmers A, Hilmers DC, Dave J. Neighborhood disparities in access to healthy foods and their effects on environmental justice. Am J Public Health, 2012; 102(9):1644–54.

Hootman JM, Macera CA, Ham SA, Helmick CG, Sniezek JE. Physical activity levels among the general US adult population and in adults with and without arthritis. Arthritis Rheum, 2003; 49(1):129–35.

Hossain MB, Khan MN, Oldroyd JC, Rana J, Magliago DJ, Chowdhury EK, Karim MN, Islam RM. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, diabetes and prediabetes in Bangladesh: evidence from the national survey using a multilevel poisson regression model with a robust variance. Plos One, 2022;

Islam SM, Mainuddin AK, Bhuiyan FA, Chowdhury KN. Prevalence of tobacco use and its contributing factors among adolescents in Bangladesh: results from a population-based study. South Asian J Cancer, 2016; 5(4):186–8.

Islam SM, Purnat TD, Phuong NT, Mwingira U, Schacht K, Fröschl G. Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) in developing countries: a symposium report. Glob Health, 2014; 10:81.

Islam MZ, Rahman MM, Moly AH. Knowledge about non-communicable diseases among selected urban school students. JAFMC Bangladesh, 2019; 15(1):90–3.

Ithnin M, Nor NAUM, Juliana N, Effendy NM, Sahar MA, Abdullah KHA, Muhammad Aris SM, Rani MDM. Knowledge, attitudes and practices on risk factors of non-communicable diseases (NCDs): a cross-sectional survey among urban and rural adults in Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. Int J Health Promot Educ, 2020:236–46;

Kabir A, Datta R, Raza SH, Maitrot MRL. Health shocks, care-seeking behavior, and coping strategies of extreme poor households in Bangladesh’s Chittagong Hill tracts. BMC Public Health, 2019; 19(1):1008.

Kamruzzaman M, Hossain A, Kabir E. Smoker’s characteristics, general health and their perception of smoking in the social environment: a study of smokers in Rajshahi City, Bangladesh. Z Gesundh Wiss, 2022; 30(6):1501–12.

Kankeu HT, Saksena P, Xu K, Evans DB. The financial burden from non-communicable diseases in low- and middle-income countries: a literature review. Health Res Policy Syst, 2013; 11:31.

Khan JAM, Ahmed S, Evans TG. Catastrophic healthcare expenditure and poverty related to out-of-pocket payments for healthcare in Bangladesh-an estimation of financial risk protection of universal health coverage. Health Policy Plan, 2017; 32(8):1102–10.

Kim YH, Kim H, Jee H. Effects of socioeconomic status, health behavior, and physical activity on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. J Exerc Rehabil, 2018; 14(2):183–91.

Kim GR, Nam CM. Temporal trends in educational inequalities in non-communicable diseases in Korea, 2007–2015. PLoS One, 2017; 12(12):e0190143.

Kim J, Sohn A. Smoking and alcohol drinking related to experience of harmful shops among Korean adolescents. Osong Public Health Res Perspect, 2014; 5(3):138–47.

Lee YT, Huang YH, Tsai FJ, Liu HC, Sun FJ, Tsai YJ, Liu SI. Prevalence and psychosocial risk factors associated with current cigarette smoking and hazardous alcohol drinking among adolescents in Taiwan. J Formos Med Assoc, 2021; 120(1 Pt 1):265–74.

Lichtenstein AH, Appel LJ, Vadiveloo M, Hu FB, Kris-Etherton PM, Rebholz CM, Sacks FM, Thorndike AN, Van Horn L, Wylie-Rosett J. 2021 Dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation, 2021; 144(23):e472–87.

Lim KH, Lim HL, Teh CH, Kee CC, Khoo YY, Ganapathy SS, Jane Ling MY, Mohd Ghazali S, Tee EO. Smoking among school-going adolescents in selected secondary schools in Peninsular Malaysia- findings from the Malaysian Adolescent Health Risk Behavior (MyaHRB) study. Tob Induc Dis, 2017; 15:9.

Liu Y, Liu G, Wu H, Jian W, Wild SH, Gasevic D. Sex differences in non-communicable disease prevalence in China: a cross-sectional analysis of the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal study in 2011. BMJ Open, 2017; 7(12):e017450.

Lorga T, Aung MN, Naunboonruang P, Junlapeeya P, Payaprom A. Knowledge of communicable and non-communicable diseases among Karen ethnic high school students in rural Thasongyang, the far northwest of Thailand. Int J Gen Med, 2013; 6:519–26.

Luna F, Luyckx VA. Why have non-communicable diseases been left behind? Asian Bioeth Rev, 2020; 12(1):5–25.

Lustig RH. Ultraprocessed food: addictive, toxic, and ready for regulation. Nutrients, 2020; 12(11):3401.

Luyckx VA, Al-Aly Z, Bello AK, Bellorin-Font E, Carlini RG, Fabian J, Garcia-Garcia G, Iyengar A, Sekkarie M, van Biesen W, Ulasi I, Yeates K, Stanifer J. Sustainable development goals relevant to kidney health: an update on progress. Nat Rev Nephrol, 2021; 17(1):15–32.

Lwanga SK, Lemeshow S, World Health Organization. Sample size determination in health studies: a practical manual. World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 1991. Available via (Accessed 30 October 2022)

Marcano Belisario JS, Jamsek J, Huckvale K, O’Donoghue J, Morrison CP, Car J. Comparison of self-administered survey questionnaire responses collected using mobile apps versus other methods. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2015; 2015(7):MR000042.

Marmot M, Bell R. Social determinants and non-communicable diseases: time for integrated action. BMJ, 2019; 364:l251.

Martinez R, Lloyd-Sherlock P, Soliz P, Ebrahim S, Vega E, Ordunez P, McKee M. Trends in premature avertable mortality from non-communicable diseases for 195 countries and territories, 1990-2017: a population-based study. Lancet Glob Health, 2020; 8(4):e511–23.

McNiven B, Wu T, Brown AD. Novel telephone-based interactive voice response system for incident reporting. Jt Comm J Qual Patient Saf, 2021; 47(12):809–13.

Mistry SK, Ali ARMM, Yadav UN, Ghimire S, Hossain MB, Das Shuvo S, Saha M, Sarwar S, Nirob MMH, Sekaran VC, Harris MF. Older adults with non-communicable chronic conditions and their health care access amid COVID-19 pandemic in Bangladesh: findings from a cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2021; 16(7):e0255534.

Morris LD, Daniels KJ, Ganguli B, Louw QA. An update on the prevalence of low back pain in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analyses. BMC Musculoskelet Disord, 2018; 19(1):196.

Msambichaka B, Eze IC, Abdul R, Abdulla S, Klatser P, Tanner M, Kaushik R, Geubbels E, Probst-Hensch N. Insufficient fruit and vegetable intake in a low-and middle-income setting: a population-based survey in Semi-Urban Tanzania. Nutrients, 2018; 10(2):222.

Navaz AMM. English education in Sri Lanka with emphasis on English medium instruction at secondary and tertiary levels: the past, present, and future. Int J Soc Sci Hum Res, 2021; 4(7):1880–91.

NCD Countdown 2030 collaborators. NCD countdown 2030: worldwide trends in non-communicable disease mortality and progress towards sustainable development goal target 3.4. Lancet, 2018; 392(10152):1072–88.

Ndubuisi NE. Noncommunicable diseases prevention in low-and middle-income countries: an overview of health in all policies (HiAP). Inquiry, 2021; 58:46958020927885.

Nettleton JA, Lovegrove JA, Mensink RP, Schwab U. Dietary fatty acids: is it time to change the recommendations? Ann Nutr Metab, 2016; 68(4):249–57.

Ng R, Sutradhar R, Yao Z, Wodchis WP, Rosella LC. Smoking, drinking, diet, and physical activity-modifiable lifestyle risk factors and their associations with age to first chronic disease. Int J Epidemiol, 2020; 49(1):113–30.

Nulu S. Neglected chronic disease: the WHO framework on non-communicable diseases and implications for the global poor. Glob Public Health, 2017; 12(4):396–415.

Nurwanti E, Hadi H, Chang JS, Chao JC, Paramashanti BA, Gittelsohn J, Bai CH. Rural-Urban differences in dietary behavior and obesity: results of the Riskesdas study in 10-18-year-old Indonesian children and adolescents. Nutrients, 2019; 11(11):2813.

Oksuzyan A, Juel K, Vaupel JW, Christensen K. Men: good health and high mortality. sex differences in health and aging. Aging Clin Exp Res, 2008; 20(2):91–102.

Olatona FA, Onabanjo OO, Ugbaja RN, Nnoaham KE, Adelekan DA. Dietary habits and metabolic risk factors for non-communicable diseases in a university undergraduate population. J Health Popul Nutr, 2018; 37(1):21.

Onah MN, Govender V. Out-of-pocket payments, health care access and utilization in south-eastern Nigeria: a gender perspective. PLoS One, 2014; 9(4):e93887.

Onarheim KH, Sisay MM, Gizaw M, Moland KM, Norheim OF, Miljeteig I. Selling my sheep to pay for medicines—household priorities and coping strategies in a setting without universal health coverage. BMC Health Serv Res, 2018; 18(1):153.

Oshio T, Kan M. Educational level as a predictor of the incidences of non-communicable diseases among middle-aged Japanese: a hazards-model analysis. BMC Public Health, 2019; 19(1):852.

Oyewande AA, Ademola A, Okuneye TA, Sanni FO, Hassan AM, Olaiya PA. Knowledge, attitude and perception regarding risk factors of overweight and obesity among secondary school students in Ikeja local government area, Nigeria. J Fam Med Prim Care, 2019; 8(4):1391–5.

Patton GC, Sawyer SM, Santelli JS, Ross DA, Afifi R, Allen NB, Arora M, Azzopardi P, Baldwin W, Bonell C, Kakuma R, Kennedy E, Mahon J, McGovern T, Mokdad AH, Patel V, Petroni S, Reavley N, Taiwo K, Waldfogel J, Wickremarathne D, Barroso C, Bhutta Z, Fatusi AO, Mattoo A, Diers J, Fang J, Ferguson J, Ssewamala F, Viner RM. Our future: a lancet commission on adolescent health and wellbeing. Lancet, 2016; 387(10036):2423–78.

Pécout C, Pain E, Chekroun M, Champeix C, Kulak C, Prieto R, van Vugt J, Gilchrist K, Lainé-Pellet AF. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on patients affected by non-communicable diseases in Europe and in the USA. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2021; 18(13):6697.

Perez-Warnisher MT, De Miguel MDPC, Seijo LM. Tobacco use worldwide: legislative efforts to curb consumption. Ann Glob Health, 2018; 84(4):571–9.

Pezzulo C, Alegana VA, Christensen A, Bakari O, Tatem AJ. Understanding factors associated with attending secondary school in Tanzania using household survey data. PLoS One, 2022; 17(2):e0263734.

Popkin BM. Nutrition transition and the global diabetes epidemic. Curr Diab Rep, 2015; 15(9):64.

Popkin BM, Ng SW. The nutrition transition to a stage of high obesity and non-communicable disease prevalence dominated by ultra-processed foods is not inevitable. Obes Rev, 2022; 23(1):e13366.

Rahamathulla MP, Mohemmed MS. Frequency and awareness of risk factors of non-communicable diseases among university students in Saudi Arabia. Pak J Med Sci, 2020; 36(4):740–5.

Rahman MM, Rahman MA, Sarker AK, Miah MAR. Non-communicable diseases: awareness among secondary school children. Bangladesh Med Res Counc Bull, 2022; 47(3):273–9.

Rawal L, Jubayer S, Choudhury SR, Islam SMS, Abdullah AS. Community health workers for non-communicable diseases prevention and control in Bangladesh: a qualitative study. Glob Health Res Policy, 2020; 6(1):1.

Rawal LB, Kanda K, Biswas T, Tanim MI, Poudel P, Renzaho AMN, Abdullah AS, Shariful Islam SM, Ahmed SM. Non-communicable disease (NCD) corners in public sector health facilities in Bangladesh: a qualitative study assessing challenges and opportunities for improving NCD services at the primary healthcare level. BMJ Open, 2019; 9(10):e029562.

Restrepo A, Scheininger T, Clucas J, Alexander L, Salum GA, Georgiades K, Paksarian D, Merikangas KR, Milham MP. Problematic internet use in children and adolescents: associations with psychiatric disorders and impairment. BMC Psychiatry, 2020; 20(1):252.

Riaz BK, Islam MZ, Islam ANMS, Zaman MM, Hossain MA, Rahman MM, Khanam F, Amin KMB, Noor IN. Risk factors for non-communicable diseases in Bangladesh: findings of the population-based cross-sectional national survey 2018. BMJ Open, 2020; 10(11):e041334.

Rosenstock IM, Strecher VJ, Becker MH. Social learning theory and the health belief model. Health Educ Q, 1988; 15(2):175–83.

Roy S, Huq S, Rob ABA. Faith and education in Bangladesh: a review of the contemporary landscape and challenges. Int J Educ Dev, 2020; 79:102290.

Roy A, Rawal I, Jabbour S, Prabhakaran D. Tobacco, and cardiovascular disease: a summary of evidence. In: Prabhakaran D, Anand S, Gaziano TA, Mbanya JC, Wu Y, Nugent R (eds.). Cardiovascular, respiratory, and related disorders, 3rd edition, The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development / The World Bank, Washington, DC, 2017. Available via (Accessed 17 December 2022)

Saqib ZA, Dai J, Menhas R, Mahmood S, Karim M, Sang X, Weng Y. Physical activity is a medicine for non-communicable diseases: a survey study regarding the perception of physical activity impact on health well-being. Risk Manag Healthc Policy, 2020; 13:2949–62.

Schutte AE, Srinivasapura Venkateshmurthy N, Mohan S, Prabhakaran D. Hypertension in low-and middle-income countries. Circ Res, 2021; 128(7):808–26.

Scully M, Morley B, Niven P, Crawford D, Pratt IS, Wakefield M. Factors associated with high consumption of soft drinks among Australian secondary-school students. Public Health Nutr, 2017; 20(13):2340–8.

Shah P, Misra A, Gupta N, Hazra DK, Gupta R, Seth P, Agarwal A, Gupta AK, Jain A, Kulshreshta A, Hazra N, Khanna P, Gangwar PK, Bansal S, Tallikoti P, Mohan I, Bhargava R, Sharma R, Gulati S, Bharadwaj S, Pandey RM, Goel K. Improvement in nutrition-related knowledge and behavior of urban Asian Indian school children: findings from the ‘Medical education for children/Adolescents for Realistic prevention of obesity and diabetes and for healthy aGeing’ (MARG) intervention study. Br J Nutr, 2010; 104(3):427–36.

Shayo FK. Co-occurrence of risk factors for non-communicable diseases among in-school adolescents in Tanzania: an example of a low-income setting of sub-Saharan Africa for adolescence health policy actions. BMC Public Health, 2019; 19(1):972.

Sheikholeslami S, Ghanbarian A, Azizi F. The impact of physical activity on non-communicable diseases: findings from 20 years of the Tehran lipid and glucose study. Int J Endocrinol Metab, 2018; 16(4 Suppl):e84740.

Shin HY, Kang HT, Lee JW, Lim HJ. The association between socioeconomic status and adherence to health check-up in Korean adults, based on the 2010-2012 Korean national health and nutrition examination survey. Korean J Fam Med, 2018; 39(2):114–21.

Sitaula D, Shrestha N, Timalsina S, Pokharel B, Sapkota S, Acharya S, Thapa R, Dhakal A, Dhakal S. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding diabetes and hypertension among school students of Nepal: a rural vs. urban study. PLoS One, 2022; 17(8):e0270186.

Sloan CE, Millo L, Gutterman S, Ubel PA. Accuracy of physician estimates of out-of-pocket costs for medication filling. JAMA Netw Open, 2021; 4(11):e2133188.

Suni E. How much sleep do we really need? Sleep Found, 2022. Available via (Accessed 6 September 2022)

Syed MA, Alnuaimi AS, Zainel AJ, A/Qotba HA. Prevalence of non-communicable diseases by age, gender, and nationality in publicly funded primary care settings in Qatar. BMJ Nutr Prev Health, 2019; 2(1):20–9.

Talukder A, Hossain MZ. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus and its associated factors in Bangladesh: application of two-level logistic regression model. Sci Rep, 2020; 10(1):10237.

Tandon K, Adhikari N, Adhikari B, Pradhan PMS. Co-occurrence of non-communicable disease risk factors and its determinants among school-going adolescents of Kathmandu Metropolitan City. PLoS One, 2022; 17(8):e0272266.

Thammatacharee N, Tisayaticom K, Suphanchaimat R, Limwattananon S, Putthasri W, Netsaengtip R, Tangcharoensathien V. Prevalence and profiles of unmet healthcare need in Thailand. BMC Public Health, 2012; 12:923.

The Daily Star. 67% of all deaths in Bangladesh due to non-communicable diseases. 2022. Available via (Accessed 30 May 2022).

Uddin KN. Non-communicable disease (NCDs). BIRDEM Med J, 2022; 12(1):1–5.

Uddin R, Lee EY, Khan SR, Tremblay MS, Khan A. Clustering of lifestyle risk factors for non-communicable diseases in 304,779 adolescents from 89 countries: a global perspective. Prev Med, 2020; 131:105955.

van Ansem WJ, Schrijvers CT, Rodenburg G, van de Mheen D. Maternal educational level and children’s healthy eating behavior: role of the home food environment (cross-sectional results from the INPACT study). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act, 2014; 11:113.

Vancampfort D, Van Damme T, Stubbs B, Smith L, Firth J, Hallgren M, Mugisha J, Koyanagi A. Sedentary behavior and anxiety- induced sleep disturbance among 181,093 adolescents from 67 countries: a global perspective. Sleep Med, 2019; 58:19–26.

Wijayatunga A. English as a medium of instruction in secondary schools in Sri Lanka: challenges. Proc Int Conf Educ, 2018; 4:151–61.

Williams J, Allen L, Wickramasinghe K, Mikkelsen B, Roberts N, Townsend N. A systematic review of associations between non-communicable diseases and socioeconomic status within low-and lower-middle-income countries. J Glob Health, 2018; 8(2):020409.

World Health Organization (WHO). Non-communicable diseases. 2018. Available via (Accessed 17 December 2022)

World Health Organization. Non-communicable diseases. Key Facts, 2021. Available via (Accessed 30 May 2022)

Zhou B, Perel P, Mensah GA, Ezzati M. Global epidemiology, health burden and effective interventions for elevated blood pressure and hypertension. Nat Rev Cardiol, 2021; 18(11):785–802.

Article Metrics

4 Absract views 6 PDF Downloads 10 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required