Review Article | Volume: 13, Issue: 1, January, 2023

Phytoconstituents and biological activities of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell: A scoping review

Musa Isah Rasmaizatul Akma Rosdi Wan-Nor-Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab Hasmah Abdullah Mohd Dasuki Sul’ain Wan Rosli Wan Ishak   

Open Access   

Published:  Jan 04, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.130102
Abstract

Melaleuca cajuputi Powell is a medicinal plant of the Myrtaceae family that is widely distributed in Asia and Southern Australia. The Major bioactive compounds reported in M. cajuputi powell include quinones, flavonoids, phenols, alkaloids, glycosdes, 18-cineol, α-pinene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, nerolidol, and terpenoids. Reports from several studies have shown an excellent antimicrobial effect of M. cajuputi Powell extracts against bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and fungal species. The plant also has remarkable insecticidal and antioxidant properties. Various toxicity experiments on rats and brine shrimps, on the other hand, have revealed a mild toxicity effect. With the potent biological activities and mild toxicity reported in M. cajuputi Powell, the plant could be exploited to develop potential plant-based novel drugs.




Citation:

Isah M, Rosdi R M, Wahab WNAWA, Ishak WRW, Abdullah H, Sul’ain M.S, Ishak WRW. Phytoconstituents and biological activities of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell: A scoping review. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2023; 13(01):010–023. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2023.130102

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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INTRODUCTION

Herbal formulations are not uncommon in treating diseases as they have been utilized to treat different diseases in humans and animals for millennia. Despite screening conducted on several other plant species, research studies on plant-based bioactive compounds remain paramount as better and safer agents with a broad spectrum of bioactivity are greatly needed (Arifullah et al., 2014). There is a long history of the medicinal uses of the plant in Southeast Asian countries, with some being sold in different forms for health remedies (Liew et al., 2020). It is an appropriate time to develop novel bioactive compounds from natural sources such as higher plants (Manga et al., 2018). This is due to the antimicrobial, insecticidal, and antioxidant properties these plants possess; therefore, they are accepted for everyday use in both traditional and modern medicine (Arifullah et al, 2014). Herbs are essential in dealing with different health conditions; this could be attributed to their enormous bioactive compounds, thus attracting the interest of researchers to the field of drug discovery (Oliveira et al., 2020).

Melaleuca cajuputi Powell plant is a member of the Myrtaceae family, popularly called “Gelam,” “kayu putih,” “paperbark,” “Cajuput tree,” “Melaleuca leucadendron,Cajuput oil,” or “tea tree” (Sharif et al., 2019). The leaves are greyish-green and fragrant with a relaxing aroma. Its height ranges from 4 to 9 cm (Fig. 1). The flowers are whitish with a unique stamen with 16 cm long spikes, which are said to resemble bottlebrushes, and the encircled seeds are essential in folk medicine (Sharif et al., 2019). Melaleuca essential oil has a yellow-green color with a solid herbal aroma that is similar to eucalyptus essential oil (Wi?ska et al., 2019). The tea tree can be found naturally in tropical areas including Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Australia. Melaleuca forests grow well in estuaries and coastal swamps in the hot and humid tropics with a temperature range of 17°C–33°C. The Melaleuca-rich region receives an average of 1.3–1.7 mm of precipitation per year, with typical monsoon conditions (Lim and Midon, 2001).

Figure 1. Melaleuca cajuputi Powell in its natural habitat (source: author).

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Several studies on the different parts of M. cajuputi Powell extracts have been reported previously (Al-Abd et al., 2015; Noor et al., 2020). However, the information obtained from these studies is extremely fragmented. Due to this, an in-depth literature review on M. cajuputi Powell will undoubtedly provide the necessary information which is crucial in understanding the knowledge gaps of this plant and stimulating future research opportunities. This scoping review focuses on the types of M. cajuputi Powell extracts examined and their phytoconstituents as well as the research findings on their biological activities.


METHODOLOGY

This review followed the methodological framework established by Arksey and O’Malley (2005). In addition, this study was processed according to the procedure of systematic database search, selection, and inclusion strategy as described by (Moher et al., 2009). This scoping review consisted of defining objectives, searching for relevant data, proper selection, gathering relevant information based on the study objectives, and summarizing the findings.

Relevant studies on the phytoconstituents and biological activities of M. cajuputi Powell published in the last two decades (2001 to 2022) were retrieved from Google, Science Direct, Google Scholar, Scopus, and PubMed. However, only research papers on M. cajuputi Powell written in English from January 2001 to early 2022 were reviewed. Theses, dissertations, and conference proceedings were included as well. Several key search terms were included such as “M. cajuputi Powell,” “Gelam extracts,” “tea tree,” “cajuput tree,” “M. leucadendron,” “antibacterial,” “antifungal,” “antimicrobial,” “antioxidant activities,” “insecticidal,” “toxicity effect,” “bioactive,” and “phytochemical compounds” by using the Boolean operators of AND/OR (Table 1).

Figure 2 illustrates the record selection criteria. Research articles from the various databases were first harmonized and sorted based on the titles to exclude all duplicates. Titles and abstracts were reviewed to exclude all records with inaccurate subjects or outcomes related to this review. Lastly, the full-text articles were screened further to exclude other irrelevant data.

Data recording

Relevant data regarding studies of M. cajuputi Powell were recorded. The information obtained consisted of various parts of the plant, such as leaves, flowers, stems, and essential oils (Fig. 3). The extraction procedures, bioactive compounds, type of biological activity, methods employed/outcomes, organisms tested, and references are shown in Table 2.

Collection, reporting, and summary of the review outcomes

All findings were recorded and summarized in Table 2. The research gaps were identified to establish a roadmap for future research to provide knowledge on novel drug discoveries from M. cajuputi Powell.


RESULT AND DISCUSSION

Medicinal plants are essential sources of unique bioactive compounds in creating new, effective, and safe medicines (3,311) research articles on the bioactivity of different parts of M. cajuputi Powell were retrieved via an electronic survey in interdisciplinary databases, with 325 duplicates removed from the list. As shown in Figure 2, The remaining 2,986 articles were then checked for title and abstract eligibility. In all, 2,892 irrelevant articles were excluded, leaving 94 possible relevant articles for full-text analysis, out of which only 34 papers were selected based on the review’s selection criteria and objectives.

Ethnomedicinal uses of M. cajuputi Powell

Medicinal plants have been reported and investigated for natural bioproducts to control diseases and lessen reliance on conventional antibiotics worldwide (Isah et al., 2020). According to historical records, herbal therapy and Ayurvedic medicine have been utilized in China for over 5,000 years (Idris et al., 2019). Moreover, humans also have been relying heavily on natural products such as plant-based food and treatment for thousands of years (Idris et al., 2019). Herbal decoctions can be used in oral administration, topical application, or steaming for disease treatment, depending on the formulation and plant parts. Tablespoons, cups, and bottles are used to measure the dosage of these herbal formulations (Bunalema et al., 2014).

The leaves of Gelam are edible and are used to treat digestive problems, cough, common cold, and stomach pain (Daud et al., 2015). Meanwhile, herbal preparation made from M. cajuputi Powell leaves and stems is used to treat joint soreness, abdominal discomfort, and muscle ache (Wolter et al., 2002). Furthermore, tea tree leaves exhibit antimicrobial, antioxidant, anodyne, insect repellent, and anti-inflammatory properties and are utilized in traditional medicine to treat dyspepsia, burns, pain, and influenza (Ko et al., 2009).

Similarly, M. cajuputi Powell is an excellent producer of therapeutic essential oil that contains many phytochemicals (Hai et al., 2019). Steam or hydrodistillation extracts the Cajuput oil from the plant’s leaves or other parts. It is utilized to heal wounds, body itch, coughs, stomach pains, asthma, and rashes in folk medicine, particularly in Southeast Asia (Toan et al., 2020). Additionally, the oil has a synergistic effect when combined with other plants in decoction to treat rheumatoid arthritis (Toan et al., 2020). Externally, the utilization of M. cajuputi oil includes relieving neuralgia and rheumatism (typically in the form of ointments and salves), as well as toothache, cancer, worms (particularly roundworms), and infections of the genitourinary system (Silva et al., 2007).

Table 1. Keywords and search phrases used for literature search.

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Figure 2. Record identification and selection protocol based on PRISMA guidelines (PRISMA, 2009 ).

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Figure 3. Bioactivity studies on the different parts of M. cajuputi Powell.

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Table 2. Biological activities and phytochemical constituents of M. cajuputi Powell.

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Solvent selection and methods for extracting phytochemicals from M. cajuputi Powell extracts

Plant extraction can be performed with different solvent systems ranging from nonpolar, intermediate, and highly polar to separate and purify bioactive compounds (Ukit et al., 2019). The resulting filtrate is tested for bioactivity screening at different concentrations. The most common solvent systems used to extract the bioactive compounds from M. cajuputi Powell were methanol, ethanol, hexane, ethyl acetate, dichloromethane, and water (Table 3). Methanol, in particular, was highlighted several times in previous studies due to its excellent properties in dissolving polar and nonpolar bioactive compounds from plant material (Ukit et al., 2019). Bioactive compounds can be separated and isolated by using different chromatographic techniques. Subsequently, various spectrometric approaches can be employed to identify the plant’s chemical structure and functional groups of extracted bioactive components (Xu et al., 2020).

Phytochemical composition of M. cajuputi Powell

The bioactive compounds reported in M. cajuputi Powell extracts include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, flavonoids, and phenolic compounds (Table 2). Figure 4 depicts the chemical structures of the main bioactive molecules. Monoterpenes are the most common chemical compounds, with structures comprised two isoprene units and organic functional groups involving hydrocarbons (pinene, terpinene, p-cimene, and terpinene), alcohols (linalool, cineol, and 4-terpineol), and ethers like 1,8-cineol (Jajaei et al., 2010). Sesquiterpenes are unsaturated chemicals that are comprised of hydrocarbons (caryophyllene), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (nerolidol), and alcohols (bisabolol and nerolidol). Other organic compounds such as steroids, quinones, saponins, tannins, and alkaloids were also reported in M. cajuputi Powell extracts (Dahiya et al., 2016; Isnaini et al., 2021).

Table 3. Solvent’s system used in M. cajuputi Powell extraction process from 2001 to 2021.

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Plants usually produce primary metabolites such as simple sugars, amino acids, polypeptides, and lactic acid, which are found virtually in all plants as part of their regular metabolic activity. They also produce secondary metabolites such as antibiotics, poisons, organic acids, and pigments for defense purposes (Angelo, 2015). As most of the products are used for self-defense, these metabolites and pigments could contain bioactive molecules, including inulin, quinine, morphine, and codeine (Angelo, 2015). Some of these bioactive compounds reported in M. cajuputi Powell extracts could interfere with the cell membrane integrity and distort cell wall structure, leading to cell death. For example, terpenoids could divide lipid membranes and cause irreversible leakage of cellular components, leading to cell destruction (Sharif et al., 2019). Another bioactive compound is 4-terpineol, an isomer of terpineol that blocks respiration and interferes with cellular metabolism (Sharif et al., 2019).

Antimicrobial activity of M. cajuputi Powell

The antimicrobial efficacy of M. cajuputi Powell extracts from leaves, flowers, stem bark, and essential oil against bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and viruses was evaluated in vitro using agar well diffusion, disc diffusion, and broth microdilution. Melaleuca cajuputi Powell crude extracts showed antimicrobial activity at 0.007–25.00 mg/ml and 0.062–50.0 mg/ml as minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)values, respectively. The diameter zone of inhibition ranged from 1.00 to 27.00 mm (Table 2).

Figure 4. Major bioactive compounds reported in M. cajuputi Powell extracts and their chemical structures.

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The report on the antimicrobial properties showed that M. cajuputi Powell extracts were effective against fungal species, bacteria, viruses, and protozoa at varying concentrations (Bua et al., 2020; Shivappa et al., 2015; Thanaboripat et al., 2007; Trinh et al., 2021).

The essential oil at a concentration of 0.714% (w/w) was reported to show antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) (Wahab et al., 2022). As determined in silico and verified by flow cytometry and transmission electronic microscopy, M. leucadendra essential oil enhances cell membrane permeability and disruption as well as cell wall lysis of bacteria by inhibiting enzymes (peptidoglycan glycosyltransferase) (Bautista-Silva et al., 2020). According to Chaudhari et al. (2022), M. cajuputi essential oil interferes with the integrity of the plasma membrane of Aspergillus flavus cells by interfering with the biosynthesis of ergosterol.

When compared to other parts of the plant, Cajuput oil was far more effective against all the microorganisms tested, including the virulent coronavirus (My et al., 2020). Furthermore, the plant was reported to have an antifilarial effect against Brugia pahangi by inhibiting the bacterial endosymbiont “Wolbachia” (Al-Abd et al., 2016). Figure 5 depicts the number of microorganisms used in the previous studies.

Antioxidant properties of M. cajuputi Powell

Melaleuca cajuputi Powell possesses significant antioxidant activity. Different parts of the plant have several antioxidant compounds, such as α-terpineol, D-(+)-limonene, and β-caryophyllene, which possess excellent antioxidant activities (Table 2).

Several physiological processes in the human and animal body produce free radicals, and they are involved in cellular biochemical functions such as gene regulation, transcription, translation, and signaling (Pérez-Rosés et al., 2016). However, it is important to highlight that there must be a balance between free radicals and antioxidants for normal physiological functioning. Oxidative stress can arise when free radicals outstrip the body’s ability to manage them, leading to diabetes, inflammation, cancer, and cardiovascular disease (Abubakar and Loh, 2016). Therefore, natural antioxidant compounds from a natural source, such as high plants, are essential for the body’s normal physiological function (Dandashire et al., 2019).

Toxicological studies

There are ongoing debates on the safety of herbal medicine in modern medicine and disease treatment, but scientists have continued to be fascinated with herbal medicine. Therefore, it is essential to provide knowledge of previous reports regarding the toxicity profile of M. cajuputi Powell to support its usage in disease treatment.

Melaleuca cajuputi Powell essential oil causes termite mortality at LC50 = 4.60% (Roszaini et al., 2013). Furthermore, M. cajuputi Powell essential oil caused contact toxicity on Sitophilus zeamais and Tribolium castaneum at LC50 values of 178.23 and 213.17 μl L−1, respectively (Ko et al., 2009). Similarly, the methanolic extract of M. cajuputi Powell stems induced a toxicity effect on Camponotus sp. at LT50 = 84.3% (Visheentha et al., 2018). On the other hand, the methanolic leaves extract at doses between 50 and 200 mg/kg showed no toxic effect on Sprague-Dawley rats (Daud et al., 2018). However, in a brine shrimp lethality test, the extract induced a mild toxicity effect at LC50 427 μg/ml (Noor et al., 2020). The aqueous and decoction extracts of M. cajuputi Powell had no toxicity effect at LC50 1062 and 2477 μg/ml, respectively (Noor et al., 2020). According to the Meyer toxicity index, the plant extract is considered toxic when the LC50 is less than 1,000 μg/ml, and it is nontoxic when the LC50 is greater than 1,000 μg/ml (Noor et al., 2020). Clarkson on the other hand defined the toxicity as nontoxic if the LC50 is greater than 1,000 μg/ml, lowly toxic if the LC50 is between 500 and 1,000 μg/ml, highly toxic if the LC50 is between 100 and 500 μg/ml, and extremely toxic if the LC50 is between 0 and 100 μg/ml (Hamidi et al., 2014).

Figure 5. Types of microorganisms susceptible to M. cajuputi Powell extracts as reported in the various literatures (n = 27).

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CONCLUSION

The extracts from M. cajuputi Powell showed a wide range of in vitro and in vivo biological effects. The reported phytoconstituents such as phenolic, aromatic, flavonoid, and alcohol groups could be responsible for the biological activities in the plant. The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and toxicity profiles of M. cajuputi Powell signified that the plant could be an excellent source of particular pharmacological active compounds. Further studies on bioassay-guided fractionation to obtain the pure compounds of M. cajuputi Powell extracts and the investigation of their antimicrobial mechanisms are necessary to unveil the plant’s full potential as a good source of novel pharmaceutical compounds for disease remedy.


AUTHOR’S CONTRIBUTIONS

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Mohd Dasuki Sul’ain, Dr. Wan-Nor-Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab, and Isah Musa contributed to the concept and design. Dr. Wan-Nor-Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab and Isah Musa contributed to data acquisition and interpretation. Isah Musa drafted the manuscript. Prof. Dr. Wan Rosli Wan Ishak, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Hasmah Abdullahi, Dr. Wan-Nor-Amilah Wan Abdul Wahab, and Rasmaizatul Akma Rosdi critically reviewed the manuscript.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

The authors have no known conflicts of interest.


FUNDING

The authors are highly grateful to the School of Health Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), for their financial support under RUI 1001.PPSK.8012209 grant.


ETHICAL APPROVALS

This study does not involve experiments on animals or human subjects.


DATA AVAILABILITY

All data generated and analyzed are included within this research article.


PUBLISHER’S NOTE

This journal remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published institutional affiliation.


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 Septiana S, Yuliana ND, Bachtiar BM, Putri SP, Fukusaki E, Laviña WA, Wijaya CH. Metabolomics approach for determining potential metabolites correlated with sensory attributes of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil, a promising flavor ingredient. J Biosci Bioeng, 2020; 129(5):5817; doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.12.005 CrossRef

 Septiana S, Yuliana ND, Wijaya CH, Bachtiar BM, Wijaya CH. Aroma-active compounds of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil, a potent flavor on Cajuputs Candy. AIMS Agric Food, 2020; 5(2);292306; doi:10.3934/agrfood.2020.2.292 CrossRef

 Sfeir J, Lefrançois C, Baudoux D, Derbré S, Licznar P. In vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils against Streptococcus pyogenes. Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2013; doi:10.1155/2013/269161 CrossRef

 Sharif ZM, Kamal AF, Jalil NJ. Chemical composition of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. Int J Eng Adv Technol, 2019; 9(1):347983; doi:10.35940/ijeat.A2668.109119 CrossRef

 Shivappa RB, Christian LS, Noga EJ, Law JM, Lewbart GA. Laboratory evaluation of safety and efficacy for Melafix (Melaleuca cajuputi extract). J Exotic Pet Med, 2015; 24(2):18892; doi:10.1053/j.jepm.2015.04.020 CrossRef

 Silva CJ, Barbosa LCA, Maltha CRA, Pinheiro AL, Ismail FMD. Comparative study of the essential oils of seven Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) species grown in Brazil. Flavour Fragr J, 2007; 22(6):4748; doi:10.1002/FFJ.1823 CrossRef

 Sutrisno S, Retnosari R, Asmaningrum HP. Profile of the Indonesian essential oil from Melaleuca cajuputi. In Proceedings of the Seminar Nasional Kimia-National Seminar on Chemistry (SNK 2018), 149; doi:10.2991/snk-18.2018.3 CrossRef

 Thanaboripat D, Suvathi Y, Srilohasin P, Sripakdee S, Patthanawanitchai O, Charoensettasilp S. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Curr Appl Sci Technol, 2007; 7(1):17; Available via https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cast/article/view/164767 (Accessed 2 September 2021).

 Trinh NTH, Anh TNP, Rappelli P. Evaluation of the susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates to Melaleuca cajuputi. Int J Multidiscip Res Publ M. cajuputi, 2021; 3(8):14.

 Thielmann J, Muranyi P, Kazman P. Screening essential oils for their antimicrobial activities against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Heliyon, 2019; 5(6):e01860; doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01860 CrossRef

 Toan TQ, Thao LPP, Chien NQ, Van NTH, Phuong DL, Huong TT, Quan PM, Pham HHT, Bich HT, Ngan TTK, Thai TV, Nguyen TV, Bach LG, Long PQ, Inh CT. Determination of chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil from Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Asian J Chem, 2020; 32(9):22037; doi:10.14233/ajchem.2020.22458 CrossRef

 Ukit U, Widiana A, Rahmawati E, Hasby RM. Antibacterial activities test of Cajuput leaf waste extract (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) on pathogenic bacteria. J Phys Conf Ser, 2019; 1402(3); doi:10.1088/1742-6596/1402/3/033030 CrossRef

 Visheentha M, Appalasamy S, Nivaarani A, Boon JG, Weeraya K, Charoen P. The Action of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) stem crude extract as natural insecticide for Camponotus Sp. J Biodivers, Bioprospect Dev, 2018; 05(02):27; doi:10.4172/2376-0214.1000173 CrossRef

 Wahab NZA, Ja’afar NSA, Ismail SB. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oils of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. J Pure Appl Microbiol, 2022; 16(1):54956; doi:10.22207/JPAM.16.1.52 CrossRef

 Wi?ska K, M?czka W, ?yczko J, Grabarczyk M, Czubaszek A, Szumny A. Essential oils as antimicrobial agents—myth or real alternative?. Molecules, 2019; 24(11):120; doi:10.3390/molecules24112130 CrossRef

 Wolter F, Clausnitzer A, Akoglu B, Stein J. Piceatannol, a natural analog of resveratrol, inhibits progression through the s phase of the cell cycle in colorectal cancer cell lines. J Nutr, 2002; 132(2):298302; doi:10.1093/jn/132.2.298 CrossRef

 Xu WJ, Xie X, Wu L, Tian XM, Wang CC, Kong LY, Luo J. Cajuputones A–C, β-triketone flavanone hybrids from the branches and leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi. Chem Biodivers, 2020; 17(11):e2000706; doi:10.1002/cbdv.202000706 CrossRef

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Septiana S, Bachtiar BM, Yuliana ND, Wijaya CH. Cajuputs candy impairs Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans mixed biofilm formation in vitro. F1000Research, 2019; (5):1-25; doi:10.12688/ F1000RESEARCH.20700.2 https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.20700.1

Sareedenchai V, Petrachaianan T, Chaiyasirisuwan S, Athikomkulchai S. Screening of acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in essential oil from Myrtaceae. Thai J Pharm Sci, 2019; 43(1):63-8. Available via http://www.tjps.pharm.chula.ac.th/ojs/index.php/tjps/article/view/779 (Accessed 7 August 2021).

Septiana S, Yuliana ND, Bachtiar BM, Putri SP, Fukusaki E, Laviña WA, Wijaya CH. Metabolomics approach for determining potential metabolites correlated with sensory attributes of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil, a promising flavor ingredient. J Biosci Bioeng, 2020; 129(5):581-7; doi:10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.12.005 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jbiosc.2019.12.005

Septiana S, Yuliana ND, Wijaya CH, Bachtiar BM, Wijaya CH. Aroma-active compounds of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil, a potent flavor on Cajuputs Candy. AIMS Agric Food, 2020; 5(2);292-306; doi:10.3934/agrfood.2020.2.292 https://doi.org/10.3934/agrfood.2020.2.292

Sfeir J, Lefrançois C, Baudoux D, Derbré S, Licznar P. In vitro antibacterial activity of essential oils against Streptococcus pyogenes. Evid Based Complement Altern Med, 2013; doi:10.1155/2013/269161 https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/269161

Sharif ZM, Kamal AF, Jalil NJ. Chemical composition of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. Int J Eng Adv Technol, 2019; 9(1):3479-83; doi:10.35940/ijeat.A2668.109119 https://doi.org/10.35940/ijeat.A2668.109119

Shivappa RB, Christian LS, Noga EJ, Law JM, Lewbart GA. Laboratory evaluation of safety and efficacy for Melafix (Melaleuca cajuputi extract). J Exotic Pet Med, 2015; 24(2):188-92; doi:10.1053/j.jepm.2015.04.020 https://doi.org/10.1053/j.jepm.2015.04.020

Silva CJ, Barbosa LCA, Maltha CRA, Pinheiro AL, Ismail FMD. Comparative study of the essential oils of seven Melaleuca (Myrtaceae) species grown in Brazil. Flavour Fragr J, 2007; 22(6):474-8; doi:10.1002/FFJ.1823 https://doi.org/10.1002/ffj.1823

Sutrisno S, Retnosari R, Asmaningrum HP. Profile of the Indonesian essential oil from Melaleuca cajuputi. In Proceedings of the Seminar Nasional Kimia-National Seminar on Chemistry (SNK 2018), 14-9; doi:10.2991/snk-18.2018.3 https://doi.org/10.2991/snk-18.2018.3

Thanaboripat D, Suvathi Y, Srilohasin P, Sripakdee S, Patthanawanitchai O, Charoensettasilp S. Inhibitory effect of essential oils on the growth of Aspergillus flavus. Curr Appl Sci Technol, 2007; 7(1):1-7; Available via https://li01.tci-thaijo.org/index.php/cast/article/view/164767 (Accessed 2 September 2021).

Trinh NTH, Anh TNP, Rappelli P. Evaluation of the susceptibility of Trichomonas vaginalis isolates to Melaleuca cajuputi. Int J Multidiscip Res Publ M. cajuputi, 2021; 3(8):1-4.

Thielmann J, Muranyi P, Kazman P. Screening essential oils for their antimicrobial activities against the foodborne pathogenic bacteria Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. Heliyon, 2019; 5(6):e01860; doi:10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01860 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01860

Toan TQ, Thao LPP, Chien NQ, Van NTH, Phuong DL, Huong TT, Quan PM, Pham HHT, Bich HT, Ngan TTK, Thai TV, Nguyen TV, Bach LG, Long PQ, Inh CT. Determination of chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of Melaleuca cajuputi essential oil from Quang Tri Province, Vietnam. Asian J Chem, 2020; 32(9):2203-7; doi:10.14233/ ajchem.2020.22458 https://doi.org/10.14233/ajchem.2020.22458

Ukit U, Widiana A, Rahmawati E, Hasby RM. Antibacterial activities test of Cajuput leaf waste extract (Melaleuca cajuputi Powell) on pathogenic bacteria. J Phys Conf Ser, 2019; 1402(3); doi:10.1088/1742- 6596/1402/3/033030 https://doi.org/10.1088/1742-6596/1402/3/033030

Visheentha M, Appalasamy S, Nivaarani A, Boon JG, Weeraya K, Charoen P. The Action of Gelam (Melaleuca cajuputi) stem crude extract as natural insecticide for Camponotus Sp. J Biodivers, Bioprospect Dev, 2018; 05(02):2-7; doi:10.4172/2376-0214.1000173 https://doi.org/10.4172/2376-0214.1000173

Wahab NZA, Ja'afar NSA, Ismail SB. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of essential oils of Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. J Pure Appl Microbiol, 2022; 16(1):549-56; doi:10.22207/JPAM.16.1.52 https://doi.org/10.22207/JPAM.16.1.52

Wi?ska K, M?czka W, ?yczko J, Grabarczyk M, Czubaszek A, Szumny A. Essential oils as antimicrobial agents-myth or real alternative?. Molecules, 2019; 24(11):1-20; doi:10.3390/molecules24112130 https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules24112130

Wolter F, Clausnitzer A, Akoglu B, Stein J. Piceatannol, a natural analog of resveratrol, inhibits progression through the s phase of the cell cycle in colorectal cancer cell lines. J Nutr, 2002; 132(2):298-302; doi:10.1093/jn/132.2.298 https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/132.2.298

Xu WJ, Xie X, Wu L, Tian XM, Wang CC, Kong LY, Luo J. Cajuputones A-C, β-triketone flavanone hybrids from the branches and leaves of Melaleuca cajuputi. Chem Biodivers, 2020; 17(11):e2000706; doi:10.1002/cbdv.202000706 https://doi.org/10.1002/cbdv.202000706

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