Research Article | Volume: 8, Issue: 11, November, 2018

Analysis of acetaminophen, mefenamic acid, sibutramine hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate

Eva Susanty Simaremare Rizka Agustine Susilowati Yeyen Dwi Astuti Rusadi Hermawan Elsye Gunawan Rani Dewi Pratiwi Rusnaeni   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 30, 2018

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2018.81107

Jamu, Indonesia herbal medicine, has long been used for helping to heal many diseases. But nowadays, many of jamu were adulterated with chemical drugs that are harmful to consumers. Adulterations were analyzed in several places except in Papua Jayapura. We conducted an analysis of jamu which containing acetaminophen (ACE), mefenamic acid (MEFA), sibutramine hydrochloride (SH), and sildenafil citrate (SILC). Samples were taken by representing herbal that predicted containing chemicals. Thin-layer chromatography and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods were used for quantitative analysis while the determination of concentration was used by titration and UV-Vis spectrophotometry methods. In this study, we reported that there was one sample in herbal medicines containing ACE, three samples containing MEFA, two samples of slimming herbal contained SH, and three samples of aphrodisiac herbal contained SILCs.

Keyword:     Acetaminophen mefenamic acid sibutramine hydrochloric sildenafil citrate Indonesia herbal medicines Jamu.


Simaremare ES, Susilowati RA, Astuti YD, Hermawan R1, Gunawan E, Pratiwi RD, Rusnaeni. Analysis of acetaminophen, mefenamic acid, sibutramine hydrochloride, and sildenafil citrate. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2018; 8(11): 048–056.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Anderson BJ. Paracetamol (Acetaminophen): Mechanisms of action. Paediatr Anaesth, 2008; 18(10):915–21.

Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) RI. Public Warning/ Peringatan Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia tentang obat tradisional dan suplemen makanan berkhasiat penambah stamina pria mengandung bahan kimia obat, Nomor: KH., 14 November 2008.

Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) RI. Public Warning/Peringatan Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan Republik Indonesia tentang obat tradisional mengandung bahan kimia obat, Nomor: HM., 2010. [Online]. Available via http:// (Accessed 27 June 2018).

Badan Pengawas Obat dan Makanan (BPOM) RI. Hasil pengawasan obat tradisional mengandung bahan kimia obat. Nomor: HM., 26 November 2014.

BPOM Announces 54 Traditional Medicines Containing Medicinal Chemicals (BKO). Media Konsumen. Available via http:// 54-obat-tradisional-mengandung-bahan-kimia-obat-bko (Accessed 30 November 2015).

Bebenista MJ, Nowak JZ. Paracetamol: mechanism of action, applications and safety concern. Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica Drug Res, 2014; 71(1):11–23.

Blok-Tip L, Zomer B, Bakker F, Hartog KD, Hamzink M, Hove JT, Vredenbregt M, de Kaste D. Structure elucidation of sildenafil analogues in herbal products. Food Addit Contam, 2004; 21(8):737–48.

Cakrer O, Kilic E, Atakol O, Kenar A. The non-aqueous titrimetric assay of the selected anti-inflammatory agents using tetra-n-butylammonium hydroxide as titrant. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 1999; 20:19–26.

Calahan J, Howard D, Almalki1 AJ, Gupta MP, Calderón AI. Chemical adulterants in herbal medicinal products: a review. Planta Med, 2016; 82:505–15.

Chen P, Lv W, Chen Z, Ma J, Li R, Yao K, Liu G, Li F. Phototransformation of mefenamic acid induced by nitrite ions in water: mechanism, toxicity, and degradation pathways. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2015; 22:12585–96.

Daraghmeh N, Al-Omari A, Badwan AA, Jaber AMY. Determinaton of SILCand related substances in the commercial products and tablet dosage form using HPLC. J Pharm Biomed Anal, 2001; 25:483–92.

Departemen Kesehatan RI (Depkes RI). Kodifikasi Peraturan Perundang-undangan Obat Tradisioal (Codification of Legislation of Traditional Medicine). Dirjen POM, Jakarta, Indonesia, 1985.

Departemen Kesehatan RI (Depkes RI). Indonesia's Health Minister Regulations No. 246/Menkes/Per/V/1990 Clause 2. p 23, 1990.

Departemen Kesehatan RI (Depkes RI). Indonesia's Health Minister. Farmakope Indonesia. Edisi IV, Jakarta, pp 31, 43, 286, 449, 537, 649, 696, 920, 1995.

Departemen Kesehatan RI (Depkes RI). Indonesia's Health Minister. Farmakope Indonesia. Edisi V, Jakarta, 2015.

FDA. FDA approves viagra. 1998. [Online]. Available via https:// (Accessed 15 August 2018).

FDA. Sibutramine hydrochoride monohydrate capsule. Abbott Laboratories, North Chicago, IL, 2004.

Florey. Analytical profiles of drug substances. Academic Press, New York, NY, 1974.

Florey. Analytical profiles of drug substances. Vol 15, Academic Press, New York, NY, pp 511–34, 1986.

Fowler PD. Aspirin, paracetamol and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a comparative review of side effects. Med Toxicol, 1987; 2:340–1.

Gandjar IG, Rohman A. Kimia Farmasi Analisis. Pustaka Pelajar, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 2009.

Gitawati R. Analysis of aduterated Jamu Pegal Linu obtained from the market in Jakarta. Buletin Penelitian Sistem Kesehatan, 2013; 16(3):269–74.

Haneef J, Shaharyar M, Husain A, Rashid M, Mishra R, Siddique, NA, Pal M. Analytical methods for the detection of undecleared synthetic drugs in traditional herbal medicines as adulterants. Drug Testing Anal, 2013; 1–3.

Hayun, Maggadani BP, Amalina N. Determination of sibutramine adulterated in herbal slimming products using TLC densitometric method. Indonesian J Pharm, 2016; 27(1):15–21.

Glomme A, Marz J, Dressman JB. Comparison of a miniaturized shake-flask solubility method with automated potentiometric acid/base titrations and calculated solubilities. J Pharm Sci, 2005; 94(1):1–5.

European Medicines Agency. International Conference on Harmonization Validation of Analytical Procedures: text and methodology Q2 (R1), 2006: 1–15.

Jain V, Singh S, Banveer J. Formulation and in-vitro evaluation of mefanemic acid solid dispersion. Asian J Pharm Educ Res, 2016; 5(1):60–73.

Kartal M. Intellectual property protection in the natural product drug discovery, traditional herbal medicine and herbal medicinal products. Phytother Res, 2007; 21:113–9.

Koehler K, Geyer H, Guddat S, Orlovius A, Parr MK, Thevis M, Mester J, Schaenzer W. Sibutramine found in Chinese herbal slimming tea and capsules. In: Schänzer W, Geyer H, Gotzmann A, Mareck U. (Eds.), Recent advances in doping analysis. Sport und Buch Strauß, Köln, Germany, vol. 15, pp 367–70, 2007.

Kuo-Chih L. Isolation and identification of a sibutramine analogue in a healthy food for weight loss. J Food Drug Anal, 2006; 15(1):20–4.

Hunsel FV, Venhuis BJ, Keizersb PHJ, Kanta A. A natural weight loss product containing sibutramine. Drug Test Analysis. Wiley, New York, 2015.

Krivohlavek A, Zuntar I, Ivesic M, Andacic IM, Sikic S, Vrebcevic M. Sibutramine in slimming food supplements on the Croatian market determined by validated high-pressure liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry method. J Food Nutr Res, 2016; 55:222–8.

Lee JH, Cho SH, Kim JY, Park HJ, Do JA, Baek S. Determination and quantification of nine adulterant local anaesthetics in illegal treatments for male premature ejaculation by GC-FID and GC-MS. Int J Pharm Sci, 2016; 8(3):135–40.

Maryam A. Some aspects of the problem of adulterated herbal medicines by the illegal addition of active pharmaceutical ingredients. J Clin Toxicol, 2016; 6(5):1–2.

Maulana A. Analisis kualitatif sibutramin hidroklorida pada jamu pelangsing yang beredar di Wilayah Banjarmasin Tengah. Jurnal Ilmiah Ibnu Sina, 2016; 1(1):36–41.

Moertei CG, Ahmann DI, Taylor WF, Schwartau N. A comparative evaluation of marketed analgesic drugs. N Eng J Med, 1972; 286(15):813–5.

Muller D, Weinman W, Hermanns-Clausen M. Chinese slimming capsules containing sibutramine sold over the internet. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2009; 106(13):218–22.

Mustarichie R, Ramdhani D, Indriyati W. Analysis forbidden pharmaceutical compounds in antireumatics jamu. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2017; 4(10):98–101.

Naveed S, Qamar F. Simple UV spectrophotometric assay of mefenamic acid. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 2014; 5(7):364–5.

Nuryunarsih D. Counterfeit herbal medicine adulterated with chemical drugs in Indonesia: NADFC public warning 2011–2014. Int J Herbs Spicies Med Plants, 2017; 1(1):2–17.

Ogunjimi AT, Alebiowu G. Excipients coprocessing influence on the interacting variables that affect the disintegration properties of a paracetamol tablet formulation. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2016; 8(5):216–21.

Ottani A, Leone S, Sandrini M, Ferrari A, Bertolini A. The analgesic activity of paracetamol is prevented by the blockade of cannabinoid CB1 receptors. Eur J Pharmacol, 2006; 531:280–1.

Pharmaceutical Forum (UCP), Sildenafil citrate and sildenafil citrate tablets monographs, 1998, 24, p. 7182–5

Podder AK, Chakrobarty JK, Faroque ABM. Qualitative and quantitative analysis of sildenafil in traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2014; 7(1):25–30.

Pundra. Identifikasi dan Kuantifikasi Bahan Kimia Obat Sibutramin dalam Jamu Pelangsing yang Beredar di Sekitar Surakarta Menggunakan Metode Spektrofotometri Uv-Vis. Skripsi. Universitas Muhammadiyah, Surakarta, Indonesia, 2013.

PubChem. Sildenafil Citrate. 2018. [Online]. Available via https://; Or (Accessed 27 June 2018).

Saeed SMA, Mohamed MA, Shantier SW, Gadkariem EA, Ismail EMO. Determination of undeclared SILCand tadalafil in aphrodisiac herbal preparations by TLC and HPLC. Int J Innov Pharm Sci Res, 2015; 3(6):688–9.

Sakur AL, Affas A. Validated spectrophotometric method to determine vardenafil and sildenafil in pharmaceutical forms using potassium iodide and potassium iodate. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2017; 9(11):65–9.

Septiani R, Damayanti S. Simultaneous identification of caffeine¸ acetaminophen, sildenafilcitrate, tadalafil and vardenafil HCl in aphrodisiac traditional herbal medicines by Thin Layer Chromatography- Densitometry. Der Pharma Chemica, 2015; 7(5):335–41.

Shakir SW. Cardiovascular events in users of sildenafil: results from first phase of prescription event monitoring in England. Br Med J 2001; 322:651–2.

Smith AP. Response of aspirin-allergic patients to challenge by some analgesics in common use. Br Med J, 1971; 2:494–6.

Suthar AP, Dubey SA, Patel SR. A validated specific reverse phase liquid chromatographic method for the estimation of sibutramine hydrochloride monohydrate in bulk drug and capsule dosage forms. Int J Chem Tech Res, 2009; 1(4):793–801.

Susilowati. Analisis perbandingan kadar Tadalafil dalam tablet Cialis yang dijual di apotek dan kios-kios di daerah Ciputat. Skripsi. UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2013.056

Tilaar M, Widjaja B. The Tale of Jamu, The Green Gold of Indonesia. Gramedia Pustaka Utama Publisher, Jakarta, Indonesia, 2015.

Thippeswamy M, Somanna P, Krishnan P, Bhandare B, Sahajanand H. A new method development and validation for estimation of paracetamol in pharmaceutical dosage form by Reverse Phase-High Performance Liquid Chromatography. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2015; 7(8):190–4.

United States Pharmacopoeia (USP). Conv. Inc., USP XXXIV, Reference Tables, Description and Solubility, 2012, p. 994–1049

World Health Organization (WHO). National policy on traditional medicine and regulation of herbal medicine. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2005.

World Health Organization (WHO). Quality tradisional medicine can deliver universal health coverage. SEAR/PR/1584. WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, 2014.

Zhang WY, Wan Po AL. Efficacy of minor analgesics in primary menstruation: a systematic review. Br J Obstetr Gynaecol, 1998; 105:780–9. States Pharmacopoeia, 2012.

Article Metrics
624 Views 221 Downloads 845 Total



Related Search

By author names