Lactic acid bacteria fermented foods: Impact on immune system and consequences over type 2 diabetes mellitus

Rahnuma Ahmad Angus Nnamdi Oli Ayukafangha Etando Paras Sharma Susmita Sinha Kona Chowdhury Adekunle Babajide Rowaiye Salma Akter Taslin Jahan Mou Sameer Dhingra Md. Firoz Ahmed Nadia Nusrat Nafisa Azmuda Halyna Lugova Nihad Adnan Mainul Haque   

Open Access   

Published:  May 01, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.142387

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disease affecting millions worldwide. Recent studies suggest that dietary interventions may improve glycemic control and lower the risk of T2DM development. In this regard, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermented foods have gained attention due to their potential health benefits, including their ability to modulate the immune system and improve glucose metabolism. This review discusses probiotic LABs and their potential usefullnes in treating metabolic disorders, focusing on diabetes mellitus (DM). The use of LAB in the fermentation mechanism of food can help in disease prevention and immunoregulation along with the benefits of preservation and escalated nutritional properties, and enhanced flavor of food. The probiotics and the metabolites produced during fermentation are involved in modifying the physiopathology and endocrine physiology or generating specific molecules for signaling pathways that may have these effects. Furthermore, this review discusses the effect, therapeutic approaches, and clinical trials of LAB and LAB fermented foods in different comorbidities, pediatric populations, gestational DM, and diabetic dietary supplements. However, there are still some roadblocks to their widespread use, such as ethical, cultural, and religious issues, which can be reduced with more real-life clinical studies. Additionally, further research into the bioinformatics of probiotic LAB strains is needed to collaborate with other researchers in this field.

Keyword:     Lactobacillales cultured fermented milk products beverages aftermath immune processes noninsulin-dependent diabetes mellitus NIDDM


Ahmad R, Oli AN, Etando A, Sharma P, Sinha S, Chowdhury K, Rowaiye AB, Akter S, Mou TJ, Dhingra S, Ahmed MF, Nusrat N, Azmuda N, Lugova H, Adnan N, Haque M. Lactic acid bacteria fermented foods: Impact on immune system and consequences type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2023.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Abdelazez A, Abdelmotaal H, Evivie SE, Melak S, Jia FF, Khoso MH, Zhu ZT, Zhang LJ, Sami R, Meng XC. Screening potential probiotic characteristics of lactobacillus brevis strains in vitro and intervention effect on type I diabetes in vivo. Biomed Res Int, 2018; 2018:7356173;

Abel AM, Yang C, Thakar MS, Malarkannan S. Natural killer cells: development, maturation, and clinical utilization. Front Immunol, 2018; 9:1869;

Acin-Albiac M, Filannino P, Arora K, Da Ros A, Gobbetti M, Di Cagno R. Role of lactic acid bacteria phospho-β-glucosidases during the fermentation of cereal by-products. Foods, 2021; 10(1):97;

Adebo OA, Gabriela Medina-Meza I. Impact of fermentation on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of whole cereal grains: a Mini review. Molecules, 2020; 25(4):927;

Adeshirlarijaney A, Gewirtz AT. Considering gut microbiota in treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Gut Microbes, 2020; 11(3):253–64;

Adesulu-Dahunsi AT, Jeyaram K, Sanni AI, Banwo K. Production of exopolysaccharide by strains of Lactobacillus plantarum YO175 and OF101 isolated from traditional fermented cereal beverage. PeerJ, 2018; 6:e5326;

Adu MD, Malabu UH, Malau-Aduli AEO, Malau-Aduli BS. Enablers and barriers to effective diabetes self-management: a multi-national investigation. PLoS One, 2019; 14(6):e0217771;

A?agündüz D, Y?lmaz B, ?ahin TÖ, Güne?liol BE, Ayten ?, Russo P, Spano G, Rocha JM, Bartkiene E, Özogul F. Dairy lactic acid Bacteria and their potential function in dietetics: the food-gut-health axis. Foods, 2021; 10(12):3099;

Aguilar-Salinas CA, Viveros-Ruiz T. Recent advances in managing/understanding the metabolic syndrome. F1000Res, 2019; 8:F1000 Faculty Rev-370;

Agus A, Planchais J, Sokol H. Gut microbiota regulation of tryptophan Metabolism in health and disease. Cell Host Microbe, 2018; 23(6):716–24;

Ahola AJ, Freese R, Mäkimattila S, Forsblom C, Groop PH, FinnDiane Study Group. Dietary patterns are associated with various vascular health markers and complications in type 1 diabetes. J Diabetes Complications, 2016; 30(6):1144–50;

Akbari M, Hassan-Zadeh V. Hyperglycemia affects the expression of inflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with Type 2 Diabetes. Immunol Invest, 2018; 47(7):654–5;

Akissoé NH, Sacca C, Declemy AL, Bechoff A, Anihouvi VB, Dalodé G, Pallet D, Fliedel G, Mestres C, Hounhouigan JD, Tomlins KI. Cross-cultural acceptance of a traditional yogurt-like product made from fermented cereal. J Sci Food Agric, 2015; 95(9):1876–84;

Al Bander Z, Nitert MD, Mousa A, Naderpoor N. The gut microbiota and inflammation: an overview. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2020; 17(20):7618;

Alberti KG, Eckel RH, Grundy SM, Zimmet PZ, Cleeman JI, Donato KA, Fruchart JC, James WP, Loria CM, Smith SC Jr; International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; International Association for the Study of Obesity. Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the international diabetes federation task force on epidemiology and prevention; national heart, lung, and blood institute; american heart association; world heart federation; international atherosclerosis society; and international association for the study of obesity. Circulation, 2009; 120(16):1640–5;

Alefishat EA, Abu Farha RK, Al-Debei MM. Self-reported adherence among individuals at high risk of metabolic syndrome: effect of knowledge and attitude. Med Princ Pract, 2017; 26(2):157–63;

Ali M, Mali V, Haddox S, AbdelGhany SM, El-Deek SEM, Abulfadl A, Matrougui K, Belmadani S. Essential role of IL-12 in angiogenesis in type 2 diabetes. Am J Pathol, 2017; 187(11):2590–601;

Alihosseini N, Moahboob SA, Farrin N, Mobasseri M, Taghizadeh A, Ostadrahimi AR. Effect of probiotic fermented milk (Kefir) on serum level of insulin and homocysteine in type 2 diabetes patients. Acta Endocrinol (Buchar), 2017; 13(4):431–6;

AlKalbani NS, Turner MS, Ayyash MM. Isolation, identification, and potential probiotic characterization of isolated lactic acid bacteria and in vitro investigation of the cytotoxicity, antioxidant, and antidiabetic activities in fermented sausage. Microb Cell Fact, 2019; 18(1):188;

Alkhaldy AA, Rizq NK, Del Jaylan SA, Alkendi EA, Alghamdi WM, Alfaraidi SM. Dietary intake and physical activity in relation to insulin resistance in young overweight Saudi females: an exploratory pilot study. Prev Nutr Food Sci, 2019; 24(4):373–80;

Allwood JG, Wakeling LT, Bean DC. Fermentation and the microbial community of Japanese koji and miso: a review. J Food Sci, 2021; 86(6):2194–207;

Altves S, Yildiz HK, Vural HC. Interaction of the microbiota with the human body in health and diseases. Biosci Microbiota Food Health, 2020; 39(2):23–32;

American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and classification of diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care, 2013; 36 Suppl 1(Suppl 1):S67–74;

Amin MN, Hussain MS, Sarwar MS, Rahman Moghal MM, Das A, Hossain MZ, Chowdhury JA, Millat MS, Islam MS. How the association between obesity and inflammation may lead to insulin resistance and cancer. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2019; 13(2):1213–24; dsx.201901041

Andersen A, Lund A, Knop FK, Vilsbøll T. Glucagon-like peptide 1 in health and disease. Nat Rev Endocrinol, 2018; 14(7):390–403;

Angelin J, Kavitha M. Exopolysaccharides from probiotic bacteria and their health potential. Int J Biol Macromol, 2020; 162:853–65;

Ansari U, Bhardwaj P, Quadri H, Barnes M, George J. Diabetic ketoacidosis unmasking a diagnosis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency: a case report and literature review. Cureus, 2022; 14(4):e23842;

Ansarimoghaddam A, Adineh HA, Zareban I, Iranpour S, HosseinZadeh A, Kh F. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in middle-East countries: meta-analysis of cross-sectional studies. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2018; 12(2):195–201;

Araki R, Fujie K, Yuine N, Watabe Y, Maruo K, Suzuki H, Hashimoto K. The possibility of suppression of increased postprandial blood glucose levels by gamma-polyglutamic acid-rich natto in the early phase after eating: a randomized crossover pilot study. Nutrients, 2020; 12(4):915;

Asama T, Uematsu T, Kobayashi N, Tatefuji T, Hashimoto K. Oral administration of heat-killed Lactobacillus kunkeei YB38 improves murine influenza pneumonia by enhancing IgA production. Biosci Microbiota Food Health, 2017; 36(1):1–9;

Ashaolu TJ, Reale A. A holistic review on Euro-Asian lactic acid Bacteria fermented cereals and vegetables. Microorganisms, 2020; 8(8):1176;

Astudillo M, Tosur M, Castillo B, Rafaey A, Siller AF, Nieto J, Sisley S, McKay S, Nella AA, Balasubramanyam A, Bacha F, Redondo MJ. Type 2 diabetes in prepubertal children. Pediatr Diabetes, 2021; 22(7):946– 50;

Ayelign B, Negash M, Genetu M, Wondmagegn T, Shibabaw T. Immunological impacts of diabetes on the susceptibility of mycobacterium tuberculosis. J Immunol Res, 2019; 2019:6196532;

Ayyash M, Abu-Jdayil B, Olaimat A, Esposito G, Itsaranuwat P, Osaili T, Obaid R, Kizhakkayil J, Liu SQ. Physicochemical, bioactive, and rheological properties of an exopolysaccharide produced by a probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus M41 Carbohydr Polym, 2020; 229:115462;

Ayyash M, Al-Nuaimi AK, Al-Mahadin S, Liu SQ. In vitro investigation of anticancer and ACE-inhibiting activity, α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibition, and antioxidant activity of camel milk fermented with camel milk probiotic: a comparative study with fermented bovine milk. Food Chem, 2018; 239:588–97;

Azad MAK, Sarker M, Wan D. Immunomodulatory effects of probiotics on cytokine profiles. Biomed Res Int, 2018; 2018:8063647;

Azizi NF, Kumar MR, Yeap SK, Abdullah JO, Khalid M, Omar AR, Osman MA, Mortadza SAS, Alitheen NB. Kefir and its biological activities Foods, 2021; 10(6):1210;

Baba WN, Mudgil P, Kamal H, Kilari BP, Gan CY, Maqsood S. Identification and characterization of novel α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory peptides from camel whey proteins. J Dairy Sci, 2021; 104(2):1364–77;

Babel RA, Dandekar MP. A Review on Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Linked to the Development of Diabetes Complications. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2021; 17(4):457–73;

Badawi A, Velummailum R, Ryoo SG, Senthinathan A, Yaghoubi S, Vasileva D, Ostermeier E, Plishka M, Soosaipillai M, Arora P. Prevalence of chronic comorbidities in dengue fever and West Nile virus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One, 2018; 13(7):e0200200;

Baig S, Shabeer M, Parvaresh Rizi E, Agarwal M, Lee MH, Ooi DSQ, Chia C, Aung N, Ng G, Teo Y, Chhay V, Magkos F, Vidal-Puig A, Seet RCS, Toh SA. Heredity of type 2 diabetes confers increased susceptibility to oxidative stress and inflammation. BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care, 2020; 8(1):e000945;

Balato A, Cacciapuoti S, Di Caprio R, Marasca C, Masarà A, Raimondo A, Fabbrocini G. Human microbiome: composition and role in inflammatory skin diseases. Arch Immunol Ther Exp (Warsz), 2019; 67(1):1–18;

Bara?ska A, B?aszczuk A, Polz-Dacewicz M, Kanadys W, Malm M, Janiszewska M, J?drych M. Effects of soy isoflavones on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Nutrients, 2021; 13(6):1886;

Barber TM, Kyrou I, Randeva HS, Weickert MO. Mechanisms of insulin resistance at the crossroad of obesity with associated metabolic abnormalities and cognitive dysfunction. Int J Mol Sci, 2021; 22(2):546;

Barons KP, Mann D, Orellana L, Miller M, Pettigrew S, Sacks G. Nutrition-related information on alcoholic beverages in victoria, australia, 2021 Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022; 19(8):4609;

Barrett T, Jalaludin MY, Turan S, Hafez M, Shehadeh N; Novo Nordisk Pediatric Type 2 Diabetes Global Expert Panel. Rapid progression of type 2 diabetes and related complications in children and young people-A literature review. Pediatr Diabetes, 2020; 21(2):158–72;

Batista TM, Haider N, Kahn CR. Defining the underlying defect in insulin action in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 2021; 64(5):994–1006;

Behboudi-Gandevani S, Amiri M, Bidhendi Yarandi R, Ramezani Tehrani F. The impact of diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes on its prevalence: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetol Metab Syndr, 2019; 11:11;

Behera P, Balaji S. Health benefits of fermented bamboo shoots: the twenty-first century green gold of Northeast India. Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2021; 193(6):1800–12;

Bellikci-Koyu E, Sarer-Yurekli BP, Karagozlu C, Aydin-Kose F, Ozgen AG, Buyuktuncer Z. Probiotic kefir consumption improves serum apolipoprotein A1 levels in MetS patients: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Nutr Res, 2022; 102:59–70;

Beltrán-Barrientos LM, Hernández-Mendoza A, Torres-Llanez MJ, González-Córdova AF, Vallejo-Córdoba B. Invited review: fermented milk as antihypertensive functional food. J Dairy Sci, 2016; 99(6):4099– 110;

Berbudi A, Rahmadika N, Tjahjadi AI, Ruslami R. Type 2 diabetes and its impact on the immune system. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2020; 16(5):442–9;

Berg G, Rybakova D, Fischer D, Cernava T, Vergès MC, Charles T, Chen X, Cocolin L, Eversole K, Corral GH, Kazou M, Kinkel L, Lange L, Lima N, Loy A, Macklin JA, Maguin E, Mauchline T, McClure R, Mitter B, Ryan M, Sarand I, Smidt H, Schelkle B, Roume H, Kiran GS, Selvin J, Souza RSC, van Overbeek L, Singh BK, Wagner M, Walsh A, Sessitsch A, Schloter M. Microbiome definition re-visited: old concepts and new challenges. Microbiome, 2020; 8(1):103;

Berraondo P, Sanmamed MF, Ochoa MC, Etxeberria I, Aznar MA, Pérez-Gracia JL, Rodríguez-Ruiz ME, Ponz-Sarvise M, Castañón E, Melero I. Cytokines in clinical cancer immunotherapy. Br J Cancer, 2019; 120(1):6–15;

Bezirtzoglou E, Stavropoulou E, Kantartzi K, Tsigalou C, Voidarou C, Mitropoulou G, Prapa I, Santarmaki V, Kompoura V, Yanni AE, Antoniadou M, Varzakas T, Kourkoutas Y. Maintaining digestive health in diabetes: the role of the gut microbiome and the challenge of functional foods. Microorganisms, 2021; 9(3):516;

Bintsis T. Lactic acid bacteria as starter cultures: an update in their metabolism and genetics. AIMS Microbiol, 2018; 4(4):665–84;

Blandino G, Inturri R, Lazzara F, Di Rosa M, Malaguarnera L. Impact of gut microbiota on diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Metab, 2016; 42(5):303–15;

Bock PM, Telo GH, Ramalho R, Sbaraini M, Leivas G, Martins AF, Schaan BD. The effect of probiotics, prebiotics or synbiotics on metabolic outcomes in individuals with diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabetologia, 2021; 64(1):26–41;

Brar PC, Kohn B. Use of the microbiome in the management of children with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Curr Opin Pediatr, 2019; 31(4):524– 30;

Briceno Noriega D, Zenker HE, Croes CA, Ewaz A, Ruinemans- Koerts J, Savelkoul HFJ, van Neerven RJJ, Teodorowicz M. Receptor mediated effects of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) on innate and adaptative immunity: relevance for food allergy. Nutrients, 2022; 14(2):371;

Brown EM, Sadarangani M, Finlay BB. The role of the immune system in governing host-microbe interactions in the intestine. Nat Immunol, 2013; 14(7):660–7;

Brown L, Pingitore EV, Mozzi F, Saavedra L, Villegas JM, Hebert EM. Lactic acid bacteria as cell factories for the generation of bioactive peptides. Protein Pept Lett, 2017; 24(2):146–55; 929866524666161123111333

Brunkwall L, Orho-Melander M. The gut microbiome as a target for prevention and treatment of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: from current human evidence to future possibilities. Diabetologia, 2017; 60(6):943–51;

Bruno RS, Pokala A, Torres-Gonzalez M, Blesso CN. Cardiometabolic health benefits of dairy-milk polar lipids. Nutr Rev, 2021ß; 79(Suppl 2):16–35;

Buziau AM, Soedamah-Muthu SS, Geleijnse JM, Mishra GD. Total fermented dairy food intake is inversely associated with cardiovascular disease risk in women. J Nutr, 2019; 149(10):1797–804;

Cabello-Olmo M, Oneca M, Torre P, Sainz N, Moreno-Aliaga MJ, Guruceaga E, Díaz JV, Encio IJ, Barajas M, Araña M. A fermented food product containing lactic acid bacteria protects ZDF rats from the development of type 2 diabetes. Nutrients, 2019; 11(10):2530;

Cai T, Wu H, Qin J, Qiao J, Yang Y, Wu Y, Qiao S, Xu H, Cao Y. In vitro evaluation by PCA and AHP of potential antidiabetic properties of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented food. LWT, 2019; 115:108455;

Canesin MR, Cazarin CBB. Nutritional quality and nutrient bioaccessibility in sourdough bread. Curr Opin Food Sci, 2021; 40:81–6;

Capurso A, Capurso C. The Mediterranean way: why elderly people should eat wholewheat sourdough bread-a little-known component of the Mediterranean diet and healthy food for elderly adults. Aging Clin Exp Res, 2020; 32(1):1–5;

Capurso L. Thirty years of lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: a review. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2019; 53(Suppl 1):S1–S41;

Carafa I, Stocco G, Franceschi P, Summer A, Tuohy KM, Bittante G, Franciosi E. Evaluation of autochthonous lactic acid bacteria as starter and non-starter cultures for the production of Traditional Mountain cheese. Food Res Int, 2019; 115:209–18;

Caricilli AM, Saad MJ. The role of gut microbiota on insulin resistance. Nutrients, 2013; 5(3):829–51;

Casqueiro J, Casqueiro J, Alves C. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: a review of pathogenesis. Indian J Endocrinol Metab, 2012; 16(Suppl1):S27–36;

Castellone V, Bancalari E, Rubert J, Gatti M, Neviani E, Bottari B. Eating fermented: health benefits of LAB-fermented foods. Foods, 2021; 10(11):2639;

Cazorla SI, Maldonado-Galdeano C, Weill R, De Paula J, Perdigón GDV. Oral administration of probiotics increases paneth cells and intestinal antimicrobial activity. Front Microbiol, 2018; 9:736;

Chakrabarti S, Jahandideh F, Davidge ST, Wu J. Milk-derived tripeptides IPP (Ile-Pro-Pro) and VPP (Val-Pro-Pro) enhance insulin sensitivity and prevent insulin resistance in 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. J Agric Food Chem, 2018; 66(39):10179–87;

Chakraborty HJ, Gangopadhyay A, Datta A. Prediction and characterization of lantibiotic structures with molecular modeling and molecular dynamics simulations. Sci Rep, 2019; 9(1):7169;

Chan KC, Kok KE, Huang KF, Weng YL, Chung YC. Effects of fermented red bean extract on nephropathy in streptozocin-induced diabetic rats. Food Nutr Res, 2020; 64;

Chaudhury A, Duvoor C, Reddy Dendi VS, Kraleti S, Chada A, Ravilla R, Marco A, Shekhawat NS, Montales MT, Kuriakose K, Sasapu A, Beebe A, Patil N, Musham CK, Lohani GP, Mirza W. Clinical review of antidiabetic drugs: implications for type 2 diabetes mellitus management. Front Endocrinol (Lausanne), 2017; 8:6;

Chávez-Reyes J, Escárcega-González CE, Chavira-Suárez E, León-Buitimea A, Vázquez-León P, Morones-Ramírez JR, Villalón CM, Quintanar-Stephano A, Marichal-Cancino BA. Susceptibility for some infectious diseases in patients with diabetes: the key role of glycemia. Front Public Health, 2021; 9:559595;

Chen I, Cassaro S. Physiology, bile acids. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 12 March 2023).

Chen M, Sun Q, Giovannucci E, Mozaffarian D, Manson JE, Willett WC, Hu FB. Dairy consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: 3 cohorts of US adults and an updated meta-analysis. BMC Med, 2014; 12:215;

Cheng Y, Ling Z, Li L. The intestinal microbiota and colorectal cancer. Front Immunol, 2020; 11:615056;

Cho NH, Shaw JE, Karuranga S, Huang Y, da Rocha Fernandes JD, Ohlrogge AW, Malanda B. IDF diabetes atlas: global estimates of diabetes prevalence for 2017 and projections for 2045 Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2018; 138:271–81;

Choudhury AA, Devi Rajeswari V. Gestational diabetes mellitus—a metabolic and reproductive disorder. Biomed Pharmacother, 2021; 143:112183;

Christa P, Dunkel A, Krauss A, Stark TD, Dawid C, Hofmann T. Discovery and identification of tastants and taste-modulating N-Acyl amino acid derivatives in traditional Korean fermented dish kimchi using a sensomics approach. J Agric Food Chem, 2022; 70(24):7500–14;

Cichonska P, Ziarno M. Legumes and legume-based beverages fermented with lactic acid bacteria as a potential carrier of probiotics and prebiotics. Microorganisms, 2021; 10(1):91;

Collinson S, Deans A, Padua-Zamora A, Gregorio GV, Li C, Dans LF, Allen SJ. Probiotics for treating acute infectious diarrhea. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020; 12(12):CD003048; CD003048pub4

Correa Deza MA, Grillo-Puertas M, Salva S, Rapisarda VA, Gerez CL, Font de Valdez G. Inorganic salts and intracellular polyphosphate inclusions play a role in the thermotolerance of the immunobioticLactobacillusrhamnosus CRL 1505 PLoS One, 2017; 12(6):e0179242;

Cousminer DL, Ahlqvist E, Mishra R, Andersen MK, Chesi A, Hawa MI, Davis A, Hodge KM, Bradfield JP, Zhou K, Guy VC, Åkerlund M, Wod M, Fritsche LG, Vestergaard H, Snyder J, Højlund K, Linneberg A, Käräjämäki A, Brandslund I, Kim CE, Witte D, Sørgjerd EP, Brillon DJ, Pedersen O, Beck-Nielsen H, Grarup N, Pratley RE, Rickels MR, Vella A, Ovalle F, Melander O, Harris RI, Varvel S, Grill VER; Bone Mineral Density in Childhood Study; Hakonarson H, Froguel P, Lonsdale JT, Mauricio D, Schloot NC, Khunti K, Greenbaum CJ, Åsvold BO, Yderstræde KB, Pearson ER, Schwartz S, Voight BF, Hansen T, Tuomi T, Boehm BO, Groop L, Leslie RD, Grant SFA. First genome-wide association study of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults reveals novel insights linking immune and metabolic diabetes. Diabetes Care, 2018; 41(11):2396–403;

Crawford MP, Sinha S, Renavikar PS, Borcherding N, Karandikar NJ. CD4 T cell-intrinsic role for the T helper 17 signature cytokine IL-17: effector resistance to immune suppression. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2020; 117(32):19408–14;

Cristofori F, Dargenio VN, Dargenio C, Miniello VL, Barone M, Francavilla R. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects of probiotics in gut inflammation: a door to the body. Front Immunol, 2021; 12:578386;

Cross LV, Thomas JR. Safety and efficacy of dietary supplements for diabetes. Diabetes Spectr, 2021; 34(1):67–72;

Cuamatzin-García L, Rodríguez-Rugarcía P, El-Kassis EG, Galicia G, Meza-Jiménez ML, Baños-Lara MDR, Zaragoza-Maldonado DS, Pérez-Armendáriz B. Traditional fermented foods and beverages from around the world and their health benefits. Microorganisms, 2022; 10(6):1151;

Cuevas-González PF, Liceaga AM, Aguilar-Toalá JE. Postbiotics and paraprobiotics: from concepts to applications. Food Res Int, 2020; 136:109502;

Cunningham AL, Stephens JW, Harris DA. Gut microbiota influence in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Gut Pathog, 2021; 13(1):50;

Daba GM, El-Dien AN, Saleh SA, Elkhateeb WA, Awad G, Nomiyama T, Yamashiro K, Zendo T. Evaluation of enterococcus strains newly isolated from Egyptian sources for bacteriocin production and probiotic potential. Biocatal Agric Biotechnol, 2021; 35:102058; doi:101016/j.bcab.2021102058

Dal Canto E, Ceriello A, Rydén L, Ferrini M, Hansen TB, Schnell O, Standl E, Beulens JW. Diabetes as a cardiovascular risk factor: an overview of global trends of macro and micro vascular complications. Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2019; 26(2_suppl):25–32;

Daryabor G, Atashzar MR, Kabelitz D, Meri S, Kalantar K. The effects of type 2 diabetes mellitus on organ metabolism and the immune system. Front Immunol, 2020; 11:1582;

Darzi J, Frost GS, Robertson MD. Effects of a novel propionate-rich sourdough bread on appetite and food intake. Eur J Clin Nutr, 2012; 66(7):789–94;

Das D, Kabir ME, Sarkar S, Wann SB, Kalita J, Manna P. Antidiabetic potential of soy protein/peptide: a therapeutic insight. Int J Biol Macromol, 2022; 194:276–88;

de Almada CN, Nunes de Almada C, Martinez RC, Sant’Ana Ade S. Characterization of the intestinal microbiota and its interaction with probiotics and health impacts. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2015; 99(10):4175–99;

de Almeida Souza C, de Oliveira, ÍACL, de Oliveira Rolim VA, de Oliveira Rolim VA, Bogsan CSB. Traditional fermented foods as an adjuvant treatment to diabetes. Curr Geri Rep, 2020; 9:242–50;

De Filippis F, Pasolli E, Ercolini D. The food-gut axis: lactic acid bacteria and their link to food, the gut microbiome and human health. FEMS Microbiol Rev, 2020; 44(4):454–89;

De Marco S, Sichetti M, Muradyan D, Piccioni M, Traina G, Pagiotti R, Pietrella D. Probiotic cell-free supernatants exhibited anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant activity on human gut epithelial cells and macrophages stimulated with LPS. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2018; 2018:1756308;

De Vuyst L, Van Kerrebroeck S, Leroy F. Microbial ecology and process technology of sourdough fermentation. Adv Appl Microbiol, 2017; 100:49–160;

Deepak V, Ramachandran S, Balahmar RM, Pandian SR, Sivasubramaniam SD, Nellaiah H, Sundar K.In vitroevaluation of anticancer properties of exopolysaccharides fromLactobacillus acidophilusin colon cancer cell lines. In Vitro Cell Dev Biol Anim, 2016; 52(2):163–73;

DeFronzo RA, Ferrannini E, Groop L, Henry RR, Herman WH, Holst JJ, Hu FB, Kahn CR, Raz I, Shulman GI, Simonson DC, Testa MA, Weiss R. Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nat Rev Dis Primers, 2015; 1:15019;

Del Carmen S, de Moreno de LeBlanc A, Levit R, Azevedo V, Langella P, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, LeBlanc JG. Anti-cancer effect of lactic acid bacteria expressing antioxidant enzymes or IL-10 in a colorectal cancer mouse model. Int Immunopharmacol, 2017; 42:122–9;

Delgado GE, Krämer BK, Scharnagl H, Fauler G, Stojakovic T, März W, Kleber ME, Lammert A. Bile acids in patients with uncontrolled Type 2 diabetes mellitus—the effect of two days of oatmeal treatment. Exp Clin Endocrinol Diabetes, 2020; 128(9):624–30;

Dendup T, Feng X, Clingan S, Astell-Burt T. Environmental risk factors for developing type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2018; 15(1):78;

Dhillon KK, Gupta S. Biochemistry, ketogenesis. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 7 January 2023).

Di Meo S, Iossa S, Venditti P. Skeletal muscle insulin resistance: role of mitochondria and other ROS sources. J Endocrinol, 2017; 233(1):R15–42;

Di Stefano E, White J, Seney S, Hekmat S, McDowell T, Sumarah M, Reid G. A novel millet-based probiotic fermented food for the developing world. Nutrients, 2017; 9(5):529;

Diez-Ozaeta I, Astiazaran OJ. Fermented foods: an update on evidence-based health benefits and future perspectives. Food Res Int, 2022; 156:111133;

Dimidi E, Cox SR, Rossi M, Whelan K. Fermented foods: definitions and characteristics, impact on the gut microbiota and effects on gastrointestinal health and disease. Nutrients, 2019; 11(8):1806;

Dinauer MC. Inflammatory consequences of inherited disorders affecting neutrophil function. Blood, 2019; 133(20):2130–9;

Ding LN, Ding WY, Ning J, Wang Y, Yan Y, Wang ZB. Effects of probiotic supplementation on inflammatory markers and glucose homeostasis in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Front Pharmacol, 2021; 12:770861;

Dobrowolski P, Prejbisz A, Kury?owicz A, Baska A, Burchardt P, Chlebus K, Dzida G, Jankowski P, Jaroszewicz J, Jaworski P, Kami?ski K, Kap?on-Cie?licka A, Klocek M, Kukla M, Mamcarz A, Mastalerz-Migas A, Narkiewicz K, Ostrowska L, ?li? D, Tarnowski W, Wolf J, Wyle?o? M, Zdrojewski T, Banach M, Januszewicz A, Bogda?ski P.. Metabolic syndrome—a new definition and management guidelines: a joint position paper by the polish society of hypertension, polish society for the treatment of obesity, polish lipid association, polish association for study of liver, polish society of family medicine, polish society of lifestyle medicine, division of prevention and epidemiology polish cardiac society, “Club 30” polish cardiac society, and division of metabolic and bariatric surgery society of polish surgeons. Arch Med Sci, 2022; 18(5):1133–56;

Dong JY, Kimura T, Ikehara S, Cui M, Kawanishi Y, Kimura T, Ueda K, Iso H, Japan Environment and Children’s Study Group. Soy consumption and incidence of gestational diabetes mellitus: the Japan Environment and Children’s Study. Eur J Nutr, 2021; 60(2):897–904;

Dore MP, Parodi G, Portoghese M, Pes GM. The controversial role of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency on cardiovascular disease: a narrative review. Oxid Med Cell Longev, 2021; 2021:5529256;

Dowey R, Iqbal A, Heller SR, Sabroe I, Prince LR. A bittersweet response to infection in diabetes; targeting neutrophils to modify inflammation and improve host immunity. Front Immunol, 2021; 12:678771;

Drouin-Chartier JP, Li Y, Ardisson Korat AV, Ding M, Lamarche B, Manson JE, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in dairy product consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes: results from 3 large prospective cohorts of US men and women. Am J Clin Nutr, 2019; 110(5):1201–12;

Dryden M, Baguneid M, Eckmann C, Corman S, Stephens J, Solem C, Li J, Charbonneau C, Baillon-Plot N, Haider S. Pathophysiology and burden of infection in patients with diabetes mellitus and peripheral vascular disease: focus on skin and soft-tissue infections. Clin Microbiol Infect, 2015; 21(Suppl 2):S27–32;

Duan L, An X, Zhang Y, Jin D, Zhao S, Zhou R, Duan Y, Zhang Y, Liu X, Lian F. Gut microbiota as the critical correlation of polycystic ovary syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Biomed Pharmacother, 2021; 142:112094;

Duca LM, Wang B, Rewers M, Rewers A. Diabetic ketoacidosis at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes predicts poor long-term glycemic control. Diabetes Care, 2017; 40(9):1249–55;

Einarson TR, Acs A, Ludwig C, Panton UH. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes: a systematic literature review of scientific evidence from across the world in 2007-2017 Cardiovasc Diabetol, 2018; 17(1):83;

Elam E, Feng J, Lv YM, Ni ZJ, Sun P, Thakur K, Zhang JG, Ma YL, Wei ZJ. Recent advances on bioactive food-derived anti-diabetic hydrolysates and peptides from natural resources. J Funct Foods, 2021; 86:104674; doi:101016/j.jff.2021104674

Ellerbrook L, Laks S. Coccidioidomycosis osteomyelitis of the knee in a 23-year-old diabetic patient. Radiol Case Rep, 2015; 10(1):1034;

Ellulu MS, Patimah I, Khaza’ai H, Rahmat A, Abed Y. Obesity and inflammation: the linking mechanism and the complications. Arch Med Sci, 2017; 13(4):851–63;

Engin A. The definition and prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2017; 960:1–17; 48382-5_1

Erdiansyah M, Meryandini A, Wijaya M, Suwanto A. Microbiological quality of tempeh with different wraps: banana leaf versus plastic. J Food Sci Technol, 2022; 59(1):300–7;

Eroglu FE, Sanlier N. Effect of fermented foods on some neurological diseases, microbiota, behaviors: mini-review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2022:1–17;

Esfandi R, Seidu I, Willmore W, Tsopmo A. Antioxidant, pancreatic lipase, and α-amylase inhibitory properties of oat bran hydrolyzed proteins and peptides. J Food Biochem, 2022; 46(4):e13762;

Eussen SJ, van Dongen MC, Wijckmans N, den Biggelaar L, Oude Elferink SJ, Singh-Povel CM, Schram MT, Sep SJ, van der Kallen CJ, Koster A, Schaper N, Henry RM, Stehouwer CD, Dagnelie PC. Consumption of dairy foods in relation to impaired glucose metabolism and type 2 diabetes mellitus: the maastricht study. Br J Nutr, 2016; 115(8):1453– 61;

Evivie SE, Huo GC, Igene JO, Bian X. Some current applications, limitations and future perspectives of lactic acid bacteria as probiotics. Food Nutr Res, 2017; 61(1):1318034;

Fabersani E, Abeijon-Mukdsi MC, Ross R, Medina R, González S, Gauffin-Cano P. Specific strains of lactic acid bacteria differentially modulate the profile of adipokinesin vitro. Front Immunol, 2017; 8:266;

Fahed G, Aoun L, Bou Zerdan M, Allam S, Bou Zerdan M, Bouferraa Y, Assi HI. Metabolic syndrome: updates on pathophysiology and management in 2021 Int J Mol Sci, 2022; 23(2):786;

Fan Y, Pedersen O. Gut microbiota in human metabolic health and disease. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2021; 19(1):55–71; 020-0433-9

Farag MA, Jomaa SA, El-Wahed AA, El-Seedi AHR. The many faces of kefir fermented dairy products: quality characteristics, flavour chemistry, nutritional value, health benefits, and safety. Nutrients, 2020; 12(2):346;

Fardet A, Rock E.In vitroandin vivoantioxidant potential of milks, yogurts, fermented milks, and cheeses: a narrative review of evidence. Nutr Res Rev, 2018; 31(1):52–70;

Farida E, Nuraida L, Giriwono PE, Jenie BSL.Lactobacillus rhamnosusreduces blood glucose level through downregulation of gluconeogenesis gene expression in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Int J Food Sci, 2020; 2020:6108575;

Feng N, Shen Y, Hu C, Tan J, Huang Z, Wang C, Guo Z, Wu Q, Xiao J. Inhibition of advanced glycation end products in yogurt by lotus seedpod oligomeric procyanidin. Front Nutr, 2021; 8:781998;

Fornari E, Barbetti F, Iafusco D, Lombardo F, Miraglia Dal Giudice E, Rabbone I, Mozzillo E. Type 2 diabetes in pediatrics. Minerva Pediatr (Torino), 2021; 73(6):549–62;

Freeman AM, Pennings N. Insulin resistance. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 10 March 2023).

Fukami H, Ueda T, Matsuoka N. Pharmacokinetic study of compound K in Japanese subjects after ingestion of panax ginseng fermented byLactobacillus paracaseiA221 reveals significant increase of absorption into blood. J Med Food, 2019; 22(3):257–63;

Fuke N, Nagata N, Suganuma H, Ota T. Regulation of gut microbiota and metabolic endotoxemia with dietary factors. Nutrients, 2019; 11(10):2277;

Fuochi V, Emma R, Furneri PM. Bacteriocins, a natural weapon against bacterial contamination for greater safety and preservation of food: a review. Curr Pharm Biotechnol, 2021; 22(2):216–31; 01021666200704145427

Furse S, Torres AG, Koulman A. Fermentation of milk into yoghurt and cheese leads to contrasting lipid and glyceride profiles. Nutrients, 2019; 11(9):2178;

Galicia-Garcia U, Benito-Vicente A, Jebari S, Larrea-Sebal A, Siddiqi H, Uribe KB, Ostolaza H, Martín C. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci, 2020; 21(17):6275;

Gao Q, Song Y, Liang Y, Li Y, Chang Y, Ma R, Cao X, Wang S. Dynamics of physicochemical properties, functional compounds, and antioxidant capacity during spontaneous fermentation ofLycium ruthenicumMurr. (qinghai-tibet plateau) natural vinegar. Foods, 2022; 11(9):1344;

García-Cano I, Rocha-Mendoza D, Ortega-Anaya J, Wang K, Kosmerl E, Jiménez-Flores R. Lactic acid bacteria isolated from dairy products as potential producers of lipolytic, proteolytic, and antibacterial proteins. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019; 103(13):5243–57;

Garidou L, Pomié C, Klopp P, Waget A, Charpentier J, Aloulou M, Giry A, Serino M, Stenman L, Lahtinen S, Dray C, Iacovoni JS, Courtney M, Collet X, Amar J, Servant F, Lelouvier B, Valet P, Eberl G, Fazilleau N, Douin-Echinard V, Heymes C, Burcelin R. The gut microbiota regulates intestinal CD4 T cells expressing RORγt and controls metabolic disease. Cell Metab, 2015; 22(1):100–2;

Ghoneum M, Abdulmalek S. KDP, a lactobacilli product from kimchi, enhances mucosal immunity by increasing secretory IgA in mice and exhibits antimicrobial activity. Nutrients, 2021; 13(11):3936;

Gibson GR. Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin. J Nutr, 1999; 129(7 Suppl):1438S–41S;

Gil-Cardoso K, Saldaña G, Luengo E, Pastor J, Virto R, Alcaide- Hidalgo JM, Del Bas JM, Arola L, Caimari A. Consumption of sourdough breads improves postprandial glucose response and produces sourdough-specific effects on biochemical and inflammatory parameters and mineral absorption. J Agric Food Chem, 2021; 69(10):3044–59;

Gil-Rodríguez AM, Beresford TP. Lipase inhibitory activity of skim milk fermented with different strains of lactic acid bacteria. J Funct Foods, 2019; 60:103413; doi:101016/j.jff.201906015

Gnanaprakasam JNR, Sherman JW, Wang R. MYC, and HIF in shaping immune response and immune metabolism. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev, 2017; 35:63–70;

Goldstein RF, Abell SK, Ranasinha S, Misso M, Boyle JA, Black MH, Li N, Hu G, Corrado F, Rode L, Kim YJ, Haugen M, Song WO, Kim MH, Bogaerts A, Devlieger R, Chung JH, Teede HJ. Association of gestational weight gain with maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA, 2017; 317(21):2207–25;

Gomes AC, Bueno AA, de Souza RG, Mota JF. Gut microbiota, probiotics, and diabetes. Nutr J, 2014; 13:60;

Gopalakrishnan V, Helmink BA, Spencer CN, Reuben A, Wargo JA. The influence of the gut microbiome on cancer, immunity, and cancer immunotherapy. Cancer Cell, 2018; 33(4):570–80; ccell.201803015

Graham K, Rea R, Simpson P, Stack H. Enterococcus faecalis milk fermentates display antioxidant properties and inhibitory activity towards key enzymes linked to hypertension and hyperglycemia. J Funct Foods, 2019; 58:292–300; doi:101016/j.jff.201904052

Grøndahl MFG, Johannesen J, Kristensen K, Knop FK. Treatment of type 2 diabetes in children: what are the specific considerations? Expert Opin Pharmacother, 2021; 22(16):2127–41;

Guo H, Gao X, Ma R, Liu J, Ding Y, Zhang M, Zhang J, Mu L, He J, Yan Y, Ma J, Guo S, Wei S. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its associated factors among multi-ethnic adults in rural areas in xinjiang, China. Sci Rep, 2017; 7(1):17643;

Guo X, Chen DD, Peng KS, Cui ZW, Zhang XJ, Li S, Zhang YA. Identification and characterization of Bacillus subtilis from grass carp (Ctenopharynodon idellus) for use as probiotic additives in aquatic feed. Fish Shellfish Immunol, 2016; 52:74–84;

Gurung M, Li Z, You H, Rodrigues R, Jump DB, Morgun A, Shulzhenko N. Role of gut microbiota in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology. EBioMedicine, 2020; 51:102590;

Hajat C, Stein E. The global burden of multiple chronic conditions: a narrative review. Prev Med Rep, 2018; 12:284–93;

Halkjær SI, de Knegt VE, Lo B, Nilas L, Cortes D, Pedersen AE, Mirsepasi-Lauridsen HC, Andersen LO, Nielsen HV, Stensvold CR, Johannesen TB, Kallemose T, Krogfelt KA, Petersen AM. Multistrain probiotic increases the gut microbiota diversity in obese pregnant women: results from a randomized, double-Blind placebo-controlled study. Curr Dev Nutr, 2020; 4(7):nzaa095;

Han AL, Lee HK, Chon HS, Pae HO, Kim MS, Shin YI, Kim S. Evaluation of the effectiveness of fermented soybean-lettuce powder for improving menopausal symptoms. Nutrients, 2022; 14(14):2878;

Han P, Gu JQ, Li LS, Wang XY, Wang HT, Wang Y, Chang C, Sun JL. The association between intestinal bacteria and allergic diseases-cause or consequence? Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2021; 11:650893;

Han Q, Phillips RS, Li J. Editorial: aromatic amino acid metabolism. Front Mol Biosci, 2019; 6:22;

Hannon, BA, Fairfield, WD. Use and abuse of dietary supplements in persons with diabetes Nutr Diabetes, 2020; 10(1):14; doi:101038/s41387-020-0117-6

Hansen SS, Aasum E, Hafstad AD. The role of NADPH oxidases in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis, 2018; 1864(5 Pt B):1908–13;

Hasain Z, Mokhtar NM, Kamaruddin NA, Mohamed Ismail NA, Razalli NH, Gnanou JV, Raja Ali RA. Gut microbiota and gestational diabetes mellitus: a review of host-gut microbiota interactions and their therapeutic potential. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2020; 10:188;

Hasheminasabgorji E, Jha JC. Dyslipidemia, diabetes and atherosclerosis: role of inflammation and ROS-redox-sensitive factors. Biomedicines, 2021; 9(11):1602;

Hassan MU, Nayab H, Rehman TU, Williamson MP, Haq KU, Shafi N, Shafique F. Characterisation of bacteriocins produced byLactobacillusspp. isolated from the traditional pakistani yoghurt and their antimicrobial activity against common foodborne pathogens. Biomed Res Int, 2020; 2020:8281623;

Hernandez-Valdes JA, Dalglish MM, Hermans J, Kuipers OP. Development of lactococcus lactis biosensors for detection of sulfur-containing amino acids. Front Microbiol, 2020a; 11:1654;

Hernandez-Valdes JA, Solopova A, Kuipers OP. Development ofLactococcus lactisbiosensors for detection of diacetyl. Front Microbiol, 2020b;11:1032;

Herningtyas EH, Ng TS. Prevalence and distribution of metabolic syndrome and its components among provinces and ethnic groups in Indonesia. BMC Public Health, 2019; 19(1):377;

Hersoug LG, Møller P, Loft S. Gut microbiota-derived lipopolysaccharide uptake and trafficking to adipose tissue: implications for inflammation and obesity. Obes Rev, 2016; 17(4):297–312;

Hill C, Guarner F, Reid G, Gibson GR, Merenstein DJ, Pot B, Morelli L, Canani RB, Flint HJ, Salminen S, Calder PC, Sanders ME. Expert consensus document. The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics consensus statement on the scope and appropriate use of the term probiotic. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2014; 11(8):506–14;

Hirode G, Wong RJ. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the United States, 2011-2016 JAMA, 2020; 323(24):2526–8;

Hishiki H, Kawashima T, Tsuji NM, Ikari N, Takemura R, Kido H, Shimojo N. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial of heat-killed pediococcus acidilactici K15 for prevention of respiratory tract infections among preschool children. Nutrients, 2020; 12(7):1989;

Homma T, Fujii J. Emerging connections between oxidative stress, defective proteolysis, and metabolic diseases. Free Radic Res, 2020; 54(11–12):931–46;

Honda K, Littman DR. The microbiota in adaptive immune homeostasis and disease. Nature, 2016; 535(7610):75–84;

Hooper LV, Macpherson AJ. Immune adaptations that maintain homeostasis with the intestinal microbiota. Nat Rev Immunol, 2010; 10(3):159–69;

Horak I, Engelbrecht G, van Rensburg PJJ, Claassens S. Microbial metabolomics: essential definitions and the importance of cultivation conditions for utilizing Bacillus species as bionematicides. J Appl Microbiol, 2019; 127(2):326–43;

Hu H, Jiang H, Ren H, Hu X, Wang X, Han C. AGEs and chronic subclinical inflammation in diabetes: disorders of immune system. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2015; 31(2):127–37;

Huang YC, Wu BH, Chu YL, Chang WC, Wu MC. Effects of tempeh fermentation with lactobacillus plantarum and rhizopus oligosporus on streptozotocin-induced type II diabetes mellitus in rats. Nutrients, 2018; 10(9):1143;

Huang Z, Lin F, Zhu X, Zhang C, Jiang M, Lu Z. An exopolysaccharide from Lactobacillus plantarum H31 in pickled cabbage inhibits pancreas α-amylase and regulating metabolic markers in HepG2 cells by AMPK/PI3K/Akt pathway. Int J Biol Macromol, 2020; 143:775– 84;

Huang Z, Shen Y, Huang X, Qiao M, He RK, Song L. Microbial diversity of representative traditional fermented sausages in different regions of China. J Appl Microbiol, 2021; 130(1):133–41;

Hulme KD, Gallo LA, Short KR. Influenza virus and glycemic variability in diabetes: a killer combination? Front Microbiol, 2017; 8:861;

Hummel S, Veltman K, Cichon C, Sonnenborn U, Schmidt MA. Differential targeting of the E-Cadherin/β-catenin complex by Gram-positive probiotic lactobacilli improves epithelial barrier function. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2012; 78(4):1140–7;

Hwang IY, Chang MW. Engineering commensal bacteria to rewire host-microbiome interactions. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2020; 62:116– 22;

Iatcu CO, Steen A, Covasa M. Gut microbiota and complications of type-2 diabetes. Nutrients, 2021; 14(1):166;

Irgam K, Reddy BS, Hari SG, Banapuram S, Reddy BM. The genetic susceptibility profile of type 2 diabetes and reflection of its possible role related to reproductive dysfunctions in the southern Indian population of Hyderabad. BMC Med Genomics, 2021; 14(1):272;

Ito F, Sono Y, Ito T. Measurement and clinical significance of lipid peroxidation as a biomarker of oxidative stress: oxidative stress in diabetes, atherosclerosis, and chronic inflammation. Antioxidants (Basel), 2019; 8(3):72;

Iwasa M, Aoi W, Mune K, Yamauchi H, Furuta K, Sasaki S, Takeda K, Harada K, Wada S, Nakamura Y, Sato K, Higashi A. Fermented milk improves glucose metabolism in exercise-induced muscle damage in young, healthy men. Nutr J, 2013; 12:83;

Iwata Y, Okushima H, Hesaka A, Kawamura M, Imamura R, Takahara S, Horio M, Tanaka Y, Ikeda T, Nakane M, Mita M, Hayashi T, Isaka Y, Kimura T. Identification of diabetic nephropathy in patients undergoing kidney biopsy through blood and urinary profiles of d-serine. Kidney360, 2021; 2(11):1734–42;

Jacobsen HJ, Kousoulaki K, Sandberg AS, Carlsson NG, Ahlstrøm Ø, Oterhals Å. Enzyme pre-treatment of soybean meal: effects on non-starch carbohydrates, protein, phytic acid, and saponin biotransformation and digestibility in mink (Neovison vison). Anim Feed Sci Technol, 2018; 236:1–13;

Jacouton E, Chain F, Sokol H, Langella P, Bermúdez- Humarán LG. Probiotic strain lactobacillus casei BL23 prevents colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Front Immunol, 2017; 8:1553;

Jang CH, Oh J, Lim JS, Kim HJ, Kim JS. Fermented soy products: beneficial potential in neurodegenerative diseases. Foods, 2021; 10(3):636;

Jang SE, Min SW.Lactobacillus sakeiS1 improves colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid by the inhibition of NF-κB signaling in mice. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2020; 30(1):71–8;

Jayachandran M, Xu B. An insight into the health benefits of fermented soy products. Food Chem, 2019; 271:362–71; foodchem.201807158

Jeon J, Jang J, Park K. Effects of consuming calcium-rich foods on the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Nutrients, 2018; 11(1):31;

Jeon JH, Park JH, Jeon SY, Pang M, Choi MK, Song IS. Concomitant administration of red ginseng extract with lactic acid bacteria increases the plasma concentration of deglycosylated ginsenosides in healthy human subjects. Biomolecules, 2022; 12(12):1896;

Jeong JJ, Park HJ, Cha MG, Park E, Won SM, Ganesan R, Gupta H, Gebru YA, Sharma SP, Lee SB, Kwon GH, Jeong MK, Min BH, Hyun JY, Eom JA, Yoon SJ, Choi MR, Kim DJ, Suk KT. TheLactobacillusas a probiotic: focusing on liver diseases. Microorganisms, 2022; 10(2):288;

Jia X, Xu W, Zhang L, Li X, Wang R, Wu S. Impact of gut Microbiota and microbiota-related metabolites on hyperlipidemia. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2021; 11:634780;

Jiang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Xu, D.; Wang, Q. Probiotics ameliorates glycemic control of patients with diabetic nephropathy: a randomized clinical study, 2021; 35:e23650; doi:101002/jcla.23650

Jiao N, Baker SS, Nugent CA, Tsompana M, Cai L, Wang Y, Buck MJ, Genco RJ, Baker RD, Zhu R, Zhu L. Gut microbiome may contribute to insulin resistance and systemic inflammation in obese rodents: a meta-analysis. Physiol Genomics, 2018; 50(4):244–54;

Jurášková D, Ribeiro SC, Silva CCG. Exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: from biosynthesis to health-promoting properties. Foods, 2022; 11(2):156;

Kaashyap M, Cohen M, Mantri N. Microbial diversity and characteristics of kombucha as revealed by metagenomic and physicochemical analysis. Nutrients, 2021; 13(12):4446;

Kanmani P, Kim H. Protective effects of lactic acid bacteria against TLR4 induced inflammatory response in hepatoma HepG2 cells through modulation of toll-like receptor negative regulators of mitogen-activated protein kinase and NF-κB signaling. Front Immunol, 2018; 9:1537;

Kanwugu ON, Glukhareva TV, Danilova IG, Kovaleva EG. Natural antioxidants in diabetes treatment and management: prospects of astaxanthin. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2022; 62(18):5005–28;

Kapp JM, Sumner W. Kombucha: a systematic review of the empirical evidence of human health benefit. Ann Epidemiol, 2019; 30:66– 70;

Karadsheh NS, Quttaineh NA, Karadsheh SN, El-Khateeb M. Effect of combined G6PD deficiency and diabetes on protein oxidation and lipid peroxidation. BMC Endocr Disord, 2021; 21(1):246;

Kariyawasam KMGMM, Lee NK, Paik HD. Fermented dairy products as delivery vehicles of novel probiotic strains isolated from traditional fermented Asian foods. J Food Sci Technol, 2021; 58(7):2467– 78;

Kawai T, Autieri MV, Scalia R. Adipose tissue inflammation and metabolic dysfunction in obesity. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol, 2021; 320(3):C375–91;

Kawashima T, Ikari N, Kouchi T, Kowatari Y, Kubota Y, Shimojo N, Tsuji NM. The molecular mechanism for activating IgA production byPediococcus acidilacticiK15 and the clinical impact in a randomized trial. Sci Rep, 2018b; 8(1):5065;

Kawashima T, Ikari N, Watanabe Y, Kubota Y, Yoshio S, Kanto T, Motohashi S, Shimojo N, Tsuji NM. Double-stranded RNA derived from lactic acid bacteria augments Th1 immunityviainterferon-β from human dendritic cells. Front Immunol, 2018; 9:27;

Kellow NJ, Coughlan MT, Savige GS, Reid CM. Effect of dietary prebiotic supplementation on advanced glycation, insulin resistance, and inflammatory biomarkers in adults with pre-diabetes: a study protocol for a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized crossover clinical trial. BMC Endocr Disord, 2014; 14:55;

Khalequzzaman M, Chiang C, Choudhury SR, Yatsuya H, Al-Mamun MA, Al-Shoaibi AAA, Hirakawa Y, Hoque BA, Islam SS, Matsuyama A, Iso H, Aoyama A. Prevalence of non-communicable disease risk factors among poor shantytown residents in Dhaka, Bangladesh: a community-based cross-sectional survey. BMJ Open, 2017; 7(11):e014710;

Khalili L, Alipour B, Asghari Jafar-Abadi M, Faraji I, Hassanalilou T, Mesgari Abbasi M, Vaghef-Mehrabany E, Alizadeh Sani M. The effects of lactobacillus casei on glycemic response, serum sirtuin1 and fetuin-A levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Iran Biomed J, 2019a; 23(1):68–77;

Khalili L, Alipour B, Asghari Jafarabadi M, Hassanalilou T, Mesgari Abbasi M, Faraji I. Probiotic assisted weight management as a main factor for glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Diabetol Metab Syndr, 2019b; 11:5; 019-0400-7

Khalivulla SI, Mohammed A, Mallikarjuna K. Novel phytochemical constituents and their potential to manage diabetes. Curr Pharm Des, 2021; 27(6):775–88;

Khan AN, Yasmin H, Ghazanfar S, Hassan MN, Keyani R, Khan I, Gohar M, Shahzad A, Hashim MJ, Ahmad A. Antagonistic, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic probiotic potential ofLactobacillus agilisisolated from the rhizosphere of the medicinal plants. Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021; 28(11):6069–76;

Khan MAB, Hashim MJ, King JK, Govender RD, Mustafa H, Al Kaabi J. Epidemiology of type 2 diabetes—global burden of disease and forecasted trends. J Epidemiol Glob Health, 2020; 10(1):107–11;

Khanam A, Hithamani G, Naveen J, Pradeep SR, Barman S, Srinivasan K. Management of invasive infections in diabetes mellitus: a comprehensive review. Biologics, 2023; 3:40–71; biologics3010004

Khanna M, Challa S, Kabeil AS, Inyang B, Gondal FJ, Abah GA, Minnal Dhandapani M, Manne M, Mohammed L. Risk of mucormycosis in diabetes mellitus: a systematic review. Cureus, 2021; 13(10):e18827;

Kharaeva Z, Shokarova A, Shomakhova Z, Ibragimova G, Trakhtman P, Trakhtman I, Chung J, Mayer W, De Luca C, Korkina L. FermentedCarica papayaandMorinda citrifoliaas perspective food supplements for the treatment of post-COVID symptoms: randomized placebo-controlled clinical laboratory study. Nutrients, 2022; 14(11):2203;

Khilji MS, Bresson SE, Verstappen D, Pihl C, Andersen PAK, Agergaard JB, Dahlby T, Bryde TH, Klindt K, Nielsen CK, Walentinsson A, Zivkovic D, Bousquet MP, Tyrberg B, Richardson SJ, Morgan NG, Mandrup-Poulsen T, Marzec MT. The inducible β5i proteasome subunit contributes to proinsulin degradation in GRP94-deficient β-cells and is overexpressed in type 2 diabetes pancreatic islets. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2020; 318(6):E892–900;

Khodabandehloo H, Gorgani-Firuzjaee S, Panahi G, Meshkani R. Molecular and cellular mechanisms linking inflammation to insulin resistance and β-cell dysfunction. Transl Res, 2016; 167(1):228–56;

Kieliszek M, Pobiega K, Piwowarek K, Kot AM. Characteristics of the proteolytic enzymes produced by lactic acid bacteria. Molecules, 2021; 26(7):1858;

Kim D, Choi Y, Kim S, Ha J, Oh H, Lee Y, Kim Y, Seo Y, Park E, Kang J, Yoo Y, Lee S, Lee H, Yoon Y.Lactobacillus fermentumSMFM2017-NK4 isolated from kimchi can prevent obesity by inhibiting fat accumulation. Foods, 2021b; 10(4):772;ß

Kim HJ, Oh TK, Kim YH, Lee J, Moon JM, Park YS, Sung CM. Pharmacokinetics of ginsenoside Rb1, Rg3, Rk1, Rg5, F2, and compound K from red ginseng extract in healthy Korean volunteers. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2022c; 2022:8427519;

Kim HY, Bong YJ, Jeong JK, Lee S, Kim BY, Park KY. Heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria dominate in Korean commercial kimchi. Food Sci Biotechnol, 2016; 25(2):541–45;

Kim HY, Kim J, Noh E, Ahn KH, Cho GJ, Hong SC, Oh MJ, Kim HJ. Prepregnancy hemoglobin levels and gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnancy. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2021d; 171:108608; diabres.2020108608

Kim IS, Kim CH, Yang WS. Physiologically active molecules and functional properties of soybeans in human health-a current perspective. Int J Mol Sci, 2021c; 22(8):4054;

Kim J, Knowles S, Ahmad R, Day L. Objective measurements associated with the preferred eating qualities of fermented salamis. Foods, 2021a; 10(9):2003;

Kim JA, Bayo J, Cha J, Choi YJ, Jung MY, Kim DH, Kim Y. Investigating the probiotic characteristics of four microbial strains with potential application in feed industry. PLoS One, 2019a; 14(6):e0218922;

Kim K, Lee G, Thanh HD, Kim JH, Konkit M, Yoon S, Park M, Yang S, Park E, Kim W. Exopolysaccharide fromLactobacillus plantarumLRCC5310 offers protection against rotavirus-induced diarrhea and regulates inflammatory response. J Dairy Sci, 2018; 101(7):5702–12;

Kim MJ, Hur HJ, Jang DJ, Kim MS, Park S, Yang HJ. Inverse association of a traditional Korean diet composed of a multigrain rice-containing meal with fruits and nuts with metabolic syndrome risk: the KoGES. Front Nutr, 2022b; 9:1051637;

Kim MJ, Park S, Yang HJ, Shin PK, Hur HJ, Park SJ, Lee KH, Hong M, Kim JH, Choi SW, Lee HJ, Kim MS. Alleviation of dyslipidemia via a traditional balanced korean diet represented by a low glycemic and low cholesterol diet in obese women in a randomized controlled trial. Nutrients, 2022a; 14(2):235;

Kim SK, Guevarra RB, Kim YT, Kwon J, Kim H, Cho JH, Kim HB, Lee JH. Role of probiotics in human gut microbiome-associated diseases. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2019b; 29(9):1335–40;

Kinariwala D, Panchal G, Sakure A, Hati S. Exploring the potentiality of lactobacillus cultures on the production of milk-derived bioactive peptides with antidiabetic activity. Int J Pept Res Ther, 2020; 26:1613–27;

King S, Glanville J, Sanders ME, Fitzgerald A, Varley D. Effectiveness of probiotics on the duration of illness in healthy children and adults who develop common acute respiratory infectious conditions: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Br J Nutr, 2014; 112(1):41–54;

Kitaura A, Nishinaka T, Hamasaki S, Hatipoglu OF, Wake H, Nishibori M, Mori S, Nakao S, Takahashi H. Advanced glycation end-products reduce lipopolysaccharide uptake by macrophages. PLoS One, 2021; 16(1):e0245957;

Knapp M, Tu X, Wu R. Vascular endothelial dysfunction, a major mediator in diabetic cardiomyopathy. Acta Pharmacol Sin, 2019; 40(1):1–8;

Kobayashi, J. d-Amino acids and lactic acid bacteria. Microorganisms, 2019; 7;

Kocsis T, Molnár B, Németh D, Hegyi P, Szakács Z, Bálint A, Garami A, Soós A, Márta K, Solymár M. Probiotics have beneficial metabolic effects in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Sci Rep, 2020; 10(1):11787;

Koh A, De Vadder F, Kovatcheva-Datchary P, Bäckhed F. From dietary fiber to host physiology: short-chain fatty acids as key bacterial metabolites. Cell, 2016; 165(6):1332–45;

Koistinen VM, Mattila O, Katina K, Poutanen K, Aura AM, Hanhineva K. Metabolic profiling of sourdough fermented wheat and rye bread. Sci Rep, 2018; 8(1):5684;

Kojta I, Chacinska M, Blachnio-Zabielska A. Obesity, bioactive lipids, and adipose tissue inflammation in insulin resistance. Nutrients, 2020; 12(5):1305;

Kok CR, Hutkins R. Yogurt and other fermented foods as sources of health-promoting bacteria. Nutr Rev, 2018; 76(Suppl 1):4–15;

Kolb H, Martin S. Environmental/lifestyle factors in the pathogenesis and prevention of type 2 diabetes. BMC Med, 2017; 15(1):131;

Kong KL, Hendrich S. Glycemic index, insulinemic index, and satiety index of kefir. J Am Coll Nutr, 2012; 31(4):280–7;

Korcz E, Kerényi Z, Varga L . Dietary fibers, prebiotics, and exopolysaccharides produced by lactic acid bacteria: potential health benefits with special regard to cholesterol-lowering effects. Food Funct, 2018; 9(6):3057–68;

Korus A, Bernas E, Korus J. Health-promoting constituents and selected quality parameters of different types of kimchi: fermented plant products. Int J Food Sci, 2021; 2021:9925344;

Kotani Y, Kunisawa J, Suzuki Y, Sato I, Saito T, Toba M, Kohda N, Kiyono H. Role of lactobacillus pentosus strain b240 and the toll-like receptor 2 axis in peyer’s patch dendritic cell-mediated immunoglobulin a enhancement. PLoS One, 2014; 9(3):e91857;

Kovtun A, Messerer DAC, Scharffetter-Kochanek K, Huber- Lang M, Ignatius A. Neutrophils in tissue trauma of the skin, bone, and lung: two sides of the same coin. J Immunol Res, 2018; 2018:8173983;

Kowalski A, Kashyap S, Mathew G. Clostridial cholecystitis. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 7 January 2023).

Kriegel MA. Self or non-self? The multifaceted role of the microbiota in immune-mediated diseases. Clin Immunol, 2015; 159(2):119– 21;

Kumar D, Shankar K, Patel S, Gupta A, Varshney S, Gupta S, Rajan S, Srivastava A, Vishwakarma AL, Gaikwad AN. Chronic hyperinsulinemia promotes meta-inflammation and extracellular matrix deposition in adipose tissue: implications of nitric oxide. Mol Cell Endocrinol, 2018; 477:15–28;

Kunkemoeller B, Kyriakides TR. Redox signaling in diabetic wound healing regulates extracellular matrix deposition. Antioxid Redox Signal, 2017; 27(12):823–38;

Kusumoto KI, Yamagata Y, Tazawa R, Kitagawa M, Kato T, Isobe K, Kashiwagi Y. Japanese traditionalMisoandKojimaking. J Fungi (Basel), 2021; 7(7):579;

Kuwata H, Yabe D, Murotani K, Fujiwara Y, Haraguchi T, Kubota S, Kubota-Okamoto S, Usui R, Ishitobi M, Yamazaki Y, Hamamoto Y, Kurose T, Seino Y, Yamada Y, Seino Y. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists on secretions of insulin and glucagon and gastric emptying in Japanese individuals with type 2 diabetes: a prospective, observational study. J Diabetes Investig, 2021; 12(12):2162–71;

Kwak JH, Lee HJ, Jeong ST, Lee JY, Lee M, Paik JK. Effect of fermentedRhus vernicifluastokes extracts on liver function parameters in healthy Korean adults: a double-blind, randomized controlled trial. Trials, 2021; 22(1):830;

Lagowska K, Malinowska AM, Zawieja B, Zawieja E. Improvement of glucose metabolism in pregnant women through probiotic supplementation depends on gestational diabetes status: meta-analysis. Sci Rep, 2020; 10(1):17796;

Lauterbach MA, Wunderlich FT. Macrophage function in obesity-induced inflammation and insulin resistance. Pflugers Arch, 2017; 469(3–4):385–96;

Lavasani PS, Motevaseli E, Sanikhani NS, Modarressi MH.Komagataeibacter xylinusas a novel probiotic candidate with high glucose conversion rate properties. Heliyon, 2019; 5(4):e01571; heliyon.2019e01571

Lazos ES, Aggelousis G, Bratakos M. The fermentation of trahanas: a milk-wheat flour combination. Plant Foods Hum Nutr, 1993; 44(1):45–62;

Le Barz M, Anhê FF, Varin TV, Desjardins Y, Levy E, Roy D, Urdaci MC, Marette A. Probiotics as complementary treatment for metabolic disorders. Diabetes Metab J, 2015; 39(4):291–303;

Lee E, Jung SR, Lee SY, Lee NK, Paik HD, Lim SI.Lactobacillus plantarumstrain Ln4 attenuates diet-induced obesity, insulin resistance, and changes in hepatic mRNA levels associated with glucose and lipid metabolism. Nutrients, 2018b; 10(5):643;

Lee J, Kim S, Kang CH. Immunostimulatory activity of lactic acid bacteria cell-free supernatants through the activation of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways in RAW 2647 cells. Microorganisms, 2022; 10(11):2247;

Lee KH, Song JL, Park ES, Ju J, Kim HY, Park KY. Anti-obesity effects of starter fermented kimchi on 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Prev Nutr Food Sci, 2015; 20(4):298–302;

Lee SE, Han K, Kang YM, Kim SO, Cho YK, Ko KS, Park JY, Lee KU, Koh EH, Taskforce Team of Diabetes Fact Sheet of the Korean Diabetes Association. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in South Korea: findings from the Korean National Health Insurance Service Database (2009-2013). PLoS One, 2018a; 13(3):e0194490;

Lee SJ, Jeon HS, Yoo JY, Kim JH. Some important metabolites produced by lactic acid bacteria originated from Kimchi. Foods, 2021; 10(9):2148;

Lee YM, Wolf P, Hauner H, Skurk T. Effect of a fermented dietary supplement containing chromium and zinc on metabolic control in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over study. Food Nutr Res, 2016; 60:30298; v6030298

Lemme-Dumit JM, Cazorla SI, Perdigón GDV, Maldonado- Galdeano C. Probiotic bacteria and their cell walls induce Th1-type immunity against salmonella typhimurium challenge. Front Immunol, 2021; 12:660854;

Lenoir-WijnkoopI, Mahon J, Claxton L, Wooding A, Prentice A, Finer N. An economic model for the use of yogurt in type 2 diabetes risk reduction in the UK. BMC Nutr, 2016; 2:1–9;

Leroy F, Aymerich T, Champomier-Vergès MC, Cocolin L, De Vuyst L, Flores M, Leroi F, Leroy S, Talon R, Vogel RF, Zagorec M. Fermented meats (and the symptomatic case of the Flemish food pyramid): are we heading towards the vilification of a valuable food group? Int J Food Microbiol, 2018; 274:67–70;

Li C, Chen X, Jin Z, Gu Z, Rao J, Chen B. Physicochemical property changes and aroma differences of fermented yellow pea flours: role ofLactobacilliand fermentation time. Food Funct, 2021b; 12(15):6950–63;

Li KJ, Brouwer-Brolsma EM, Burton-Pimentel KJ, Vergères G, Feskens EJM. A systematic review to identify biomarkers of intake for fermented food products. Genes Nutr, 2021a; 16(1):5; 021-00686-4

Li R, Zheng X, Yang J, Shen X, Jiao L, Yan Z, Chen B, Han B. Relation between gut microbiota composition and traditional spontaneous fermented dairy foods among kazakh nomads in Xinjiang, China. J Food Sci, 2019; 84(12):3804–14;

Li W, Song F, Wang X, Wang L, Wang D, Yin X, Cao S, Gong Y, Yue W, Yan F, Zhang H, Sheng Z, Wang Z, Lu Z. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome among middle-aged and elderly adults in China: current status and temporal trends. Ann Med, 2018a; 50(4):345–53; 89020181464202

Li X, Watanabe K, Kimura I. Gut microbiota dysbiosis drives and implies novel therapeutic strategies for diabetes mellitus and related metabolic diseases. Front Immunol, 2017; 8:1882;

Li Y, Zhao L, Yu D, Wang Z, Ding G. Metabolic syndrome prevalence and its risk factors among adults in China: a nationally representative cross-sectional study. PLoS One, 2018b; 13(6):e0199293;

Liao W, Cao X, Xia H, Wang S, Sun G. Pea protein-derived peptides inhibit hepatic glucose production via the gluconeogenic signaling in the AML-12 cells. Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2022; 19(16):10254;

Lim YH, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdullah N. Comparative studies of versatile extracellular proteolytic activities of lactic acid bacteria and their potential for extracellular amino acid productions as feed supplements. J Anim Sci Biotechnol, 2019; 10:15;

Lin D, Chun TH, Kang L. Adipose extracellular matrix remodeling in obesity and insulin resistance. Biochem Pharmacol, 2016; 119:8–16;

Lin X, Xu Y, Pan X, Xu J, Ding Y, Sun X, Song X, Ren Y, Shan PF. Global, regional, and national burden and trend of diabetes in 195 countries and territories: an analysis from 1990 to 2025 Sci Rep, 2020; 10(1):14790;

Liu F, Wang H, Feng W, Ye X, Sun X, Jiang C, Chu X, Zhang P, Jiang C, Wang Y, Zhu D, Bi Y. Type 1 innate lymphoid cells are associated with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Metab, 2019; 45(4):341–6; diabet.201808005

Lizzo JM, Goyal A, Gupta V. Adult diabetic ketoacidosis. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 7 January 2023).

Llewellyn A, Foey A. Probiotic modulation of innate cell pathogen sensing and signaling events. Nutrients, 2017; 9(10):1156;

Lloyd-Price J, Abu-Ali G, Huttenhower C. The healthy human microbiome. Genome Med, 2016; 8(1):51;

Long SL, Gahan CGM, Joyce SA. Interactions between gut bacteria and bile in health and disease. Mol Aspects Med, 2017; 56:54–65;

Lorenzo JM, Munekata PE, Dominguez R, Pateiro M, Saraiva JA, Franco D. Main groups of microorganisms of relevance for food safety and stability: general aspects and overall description. Innov Technol Food Preserv, 2018:53–107; 700003-0

Luc K, Schramm-Luc A, Guzik TJ, Mikolajczyk TP. Oxidative stress and inflammatory markers in prediabetes and diabetes. J Physiol Pharmacol, 2019; 70(6);

Ludwig IS, Broere F, Manurung S, Lambers TT, van der Zee R, van Eden W.Lactobacillus rhamnosusGG-derived soluble mediators modulate adaptive immune cells. Front Immunol, 2018; 9:1546;

Lueschow SR, McElroy SJ. The paneth cell: the curator and defender of the immature small intestine. Front Immunol, 2020; 11:587;

Lynch KM, Zannini E, Coffey A, Arendt EK. Lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides in foods and beverages: isolation, properties, characterization, and health benefits. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol, 2018; 9:155–76;

MacIntyre CR, Bui CM. Pandemics, public health emergencies, and antimicrobial resistance—putting the threat in an epidemiologic and risk analysis context. Arch Public Health, 2017; 75:54;

Maekawa T, Ishijima AS, Ida M, Izumo T, Ono Y, Shibata H, Abe S. Prophylactic effect ofLactobacillus pentosusstrain S-PT84 on candida infection and gastric inflammation in a murine gastrointestinal candidiasis model [Errata]. Med Mycol J, 2016; 57(4):E81–92;

Magra T, Soultos N, Dovas C, Papavergou E, Lazou T, Apostolakos I, Dimitreli G, Ambrosiadis I. Dry fermented sausages with total replacement of fat by extra virgin olive oil emulsion and indigenous lactic acid bacteria. Food Technol Biotechnol, 2021; 59(3):267–81;

Manosudprasit A, Kantarci A, Hasturk H, Stephens D, Van Dyke TE. Spontaneous PMN apoptosis in type 2 diabetes and the impact of periodontitis. J Leukoc Biol, 2017; 102(6):1431–40;

Marco ML, Heeney D, Binda S, Cifelli CJ, Cotter PD, Foligné B, Gänzle M, Kort R, Pasin G, Pihlanto A, Smid EJ, Hutkins R. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2017; 44:94–102;

Marco ML, Sanders ME, Gänzle M, Arrieta MC, Cotter PD, De Vuyst L, Hill C, Holzapfel W, Lebeer S, Merenstein D, Reid G, Wolfe BE, Hutkins R. The international scientific association for probiotics and prebiotics (ISAPP) consensus statement on fermented foods. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2021; 18(3):196–208; 00390-5

Martis R, Crowther CA, Shepherd E, Alsweiler J, Downie MR, Brown J. Treatments for women with gestational diabetes mellitus: an overview of Cochrane systematic reviews. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2018; 8(8):CD012327;

Mathur H, Beresford TP, Cotter PD. Health benefits of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) fermentates. Nutrients, 2020; 12(6):1679;

Mays ZJ, Nair NU. Synthetic biology in probiotic lactic acid bacteria: at the frontier of living therapeutics. Curr Opin Biotechnol, 2018; 53:224–31;

Mazloom K, Siddiqi I, Covasa M. Probiotics: how effective are they in the fight against obesity? Nutrients, 2019; 11(2):258;

Mazur-Bialy AI, Pochec E. Vitamin B2 deficiency enhances the pro-inflammatory activity of adipocyte, consequences for insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome development. Life Sci, 2017; 178:9–16;

McCracken E, Monaghan M, Sreenivasan S. Pathophysiology of the metabolic syndrome. Clin Dermatol, 2018; 36(1):14–20; clindermatol.201709004

McDermott AJ, Huffnagle GB. The microbiome and regulation of mucosal immunity. Immunology, 2014; 142(1):24–31;

McLaughlin T, Ackerman SE, Shen L, Engleman E. Role of innate and adaptive immunity in obesity-associated metabolic disease. J Clin Invest, 2017; 127(1):5–13;

Melchior H, Kurch-Bek D, Mund M. The prevalence of gestational diabetes. Dtsch Arztebl Int, 2017; 114(24):412–8;

Melini F, Melini V, Luziatelli F, Ficca AG, Ruzzi M. Health-promoting components in fermented foods: an up-to-date systematic review. Nutrients, 2019; 11(5):1189;

Menezes AGT, Ramos CL, Dias DR, Schwan RF. Combination of probiotic yeast and lactic acid bacteria as starter culture to produce maize-based beverages. Food Res Int, 2018; 111:187–97; foodres.201804065

Meng Z, Oh S. Antioxidant and antimelanogenic activities of Kimchi-derivedLimosilactobacillus fermentumJNU532 in B16F10 melanoma cells. J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2021; 31(7):990–8;

Merra G, Noce A, Marrone G, Cintoni M, Tarsitano MG, Capacci A, De Lorenzo A. Influence of mediterranean diet on human gut microbiota. Nutrients, 2020; 13(1):7;

Mesinovic J, Zengin A, De Courten B, Ebeling PR, Scott D. Sarcopenia and type 2 diabetes mellitus: a bidirectional relationship. Diabetes Metab Syndr Obes, 2019; 12:1057–72;

Mikelsaar M, Sepp E, Štšepetova J, Songisepp E, Mändar R. Biodiversity of intestinal lactic acid bacteria in the healthy population. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2016; 932:1–64;

Miraghajani M, Dehsoukhteh SS, Rafie N, Hamedani SG, Sabihi S, Ghiasvand R. Potential mechanisms linking probiotics to diabetes: a narrative review of the literature. Sao Paulo Med J, 2017; 135(2):169–78;

Moffa S, Mezza T, Cefalo CMA, Cinti F, Impronta F, Sorice GP, Santoro A, Di Giuseppe G, Pontecorvi A, Giaccari A. The interplay between immune system and microbiota in diabetes. Mediators Inflamm, 2019; 2019:9367404;

Mohamadshahi M, Veissi M, Haidari F, Shahbazian H, Kaydani GA, Mohammadi F. Effects of probiotic yogurt consumption on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with type 2 diabetes. Bioimpacts, 2014; 4(2):83–8;

Mohseni AH, Casolaro V, Bermúdez-Humarán LG, Keyvani H, Taghinezhad-S S. Modulation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathway by probiotics as a fruitful target for orchestrating the immune response. Gut Microbes, 2021; 13(1):1–17;

Mokoena MP. Lactic acid bacteria and their bacteriocins: classification, biosynthesis and applications against uropathogens: a mini-review. Molecules, 2017; 22(8):1255;

Molfetta M, Morais EG, Barreira L, Bruno GL, Porcelli F, Dugat- Bony E, Bonnarme P, Minervini F. Protein sources alternative to meat: state of the art and involvement of fermentation. Foods, 2022; 11(14):2065;

Moore A, Luckett CR, Munafo JP Jr. Taste-active dipeptides from hydrolyzed mushroom protein enhance saltiness. J Agric Food Chem, 2021; 69(40):11947–59;

Mörbe UM, Jørgensen PB, Fenton TM, von Burg N, Riis LB, Spencer J, Agace WW. Human gut-associated lymphoid tissues (GALT); diversity, structure, and function. Mucosal Immunol, 2021; 14(4):793–802;

Morita I, Tanimoto K, Akiyama N, Naya N, Fujieda K, Iwasaki T, Yukioka H. Chronic hyperinsulinemia contributes to insulin resistance under dietary restriction in association with altered lipid metabolism in Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab, 2017; 312(4):E264–72;

Moro K, Koyasu S. Innate lymphoid cells, possible interaction with microbiota. Semin Immunopathol, 2015; 37(1):27–37;

Mowat AM. Historical perspective: metchnikoff and the intestinal microbiome. J Leukoc Biol, 2021; 109(3):513–7;

Mozaffarian D, Hao T, Rimm EB, Willett WC, Hu FB. Changes in diet and lifestyle and long-term weight gain in women and men. N Engl J Med, 2011; 364(25):2392–404;

Mozaffarian D. Dairy foods, obesity, and metabolic health: the role of the food matrix compared with single nutrients. Adv Nutr, 2019; 10(5):917S–23S;

Mudadu AG, Piras G, Melillo R, Salza S, Cau S, Virgilio S, Meloni D, Mele P. Survival of naturally contaminating listeria monocytogenes in commercial mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages during Storage. J Food Prot, 2022; 85(11):1576–83;

Nabhani Z, Hezaveh SJG, Razmpoosh E, Asghari-Jafarabadi M, Gargari BP. The effects of synbiotic supplementation on insulin resistance/sensitivity, lipid profile and total antioxidant capacity in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized, double-blind placebo controlled clinical trial. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2018; 138:149–57;

Nakai S, Fujita M, Kamei Y. Health promotion effects of soy isoflavones. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo), 2020; 66(6):502–7;

Nehal F, Sahnoun M, Smaoui S, Jaouadi B, Bejar S, Mohammed S. Characterization, high production and antimicrobial activity of exopolysaccharides fromLactococcus lactisF-mou. Microb Pathog, 2019; 132:10–9;

Ngo MD, Bartlett S, Ronacher K. Diabetes-associated susceptibility to tuberculosis: contribution of hyperglycemia vs. dyslipidemia. Microorganisms, 2021; 9(11):2282;

Nielsen ES, Garnås E, Jensen KJ, Hansen LH, Olsen PS, Ritz C, Krych L, Nielsen DS. Lacto-fermented sauerkraut improves symptoms in IBS patients independent of product pasteurization—a pilot study. Food Funct, 2018; 9(10):5323–35;

Nilsson PM, Tuomilehto J, Rydén L. The metabolic syndrome— what is it, and how should it be managed? Eur J Prev Cardiol, 2019; 26(2_ suppl):33–46;

Nongonierma AB, FitzGerald RJ. Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV) by proline containing casein-derived peptides. J Funct Foods, 2013; 5:1909–17;

O’Keefe SJ. Diet, microorganisms and their metabolites, and colon cancer. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016; 13(12):691–706;

Oh MR, Jang HY, Lee SY, Jung SJ, Chae SW, Lee SO, Park BH.Lactobacillus plantarumHAC01 supplementation improves glycemic control in prediabetic subjects: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Nutrients, 2021; 13(7):2337;

Ohira H, Tsutsui W, Fujioka Y. Are short chain fatty acids in gut microbiota defensive players for inflammation and atherosclerosis? J Atheroscler Thromb, 2017; 24(7):660–72;

Okesene-Gafa KA, Moore AE, Jordan V, McCowan L, Crowther CA. Probiotic treatment for women with gestational diabetes to improve maternal and infant health and well-being. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2020; 6(6):CD012970;

Okouchi R, Sakanoi Y, Tsuduki T. Miso (fermented soybean paste) suppresses visceral fat accumulation in mice, especially in combination with exercise. Nutrients, 2019; 11(3):560;

Olayanju A, Mellor D, Khatri Y, Pickles N. The efficacy of fermented foods in the treatment and management of diarrhoeal diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nutr Health, 2022; 2601060221095678;

Oliveira RB, Canuto LP, Collares-Buzato CB. Intestinal luminal content from high-fat-fed prediabetic mice changes epithelial barrier functionin vitro. Life Sci, 2019; 216:10–21;

Oluwagunwa OA, Alashi AM, Aluko RE. Inhibition of the in vitro activities of α-amylase and pancreatic lipase by aqueous extracts ofAmaranthus viridis,Solanum macrocarponandTelfairia occidentalisleaves. Front Nutr, 2021; 8:772903;

Ong L, Shah NP. Influence of probioticLactobacillus acidophilusandL. helveticuson proteolysis, organic acid profiles, and ACE-inhibitory activity of cheddar cheeses ripened at 4, 8, and 12 degrees C. J Food Sci, 2008; 73(3):M111–20;

Oskovi-Kaplan ZA, Ozgu-Erdinc AS. Management of gestational diabetes mellitus. Adv Exp Med Biol, 2021; 1307:257–72;

Ostadrahimi A, Taghizadeh A, Mobasseri M, Farrin N, Payahoo L, Beyramalipoor Gheshlaghi Z, Vahedjabbari M. Effect of probiotic fermented milk (kefir) on glycemic control and lipid profile in type 2 diabetic patients: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. Iran J Public Health, 2015; 44(2):228–37 Available via

Ouwehand AC, Invernici MM, Furlaneto FAC, Messora MR. Effectiveness of multistrain versus single-strain probiotics: current status and recommendations for the future. J Clin Gastroenterol, 2018; 52(Suppl 1):S35–40;

Panda SK, Colonna M. Innate lymphoid cells: a potential link between microbiota and immune responses against cancer. Semin Immunol, 2019; 41:101271;

Paray BA, Albeshr MF, Jan AT, Rather IA. Leaky gut and autoimmunity: an intricate balance in individuals health and the diseased state. Int J Mol Sci, 2020; 21(24):9770;

Park KY, Jeong JK, Lee YE, Daily JW 3rd. Health benefits of kimchi (Korean fermented vegetables) as a probiotic food. J Med Food, 2014; 17(1):6–20;

Parlindungan E, Lugli GA, Ventura M, van Sinderen D, Mahony J. Lactic Acid Bacteria diversity and characterization of probiotic candidates in fermented meats. Foods, 2021; 10(7):1519;

Parthasarathy A, Cross PJ, Dobson RCJ, Adams LE, Savka MA, Hudson AO. A Three-ring circus: metabolism of the three proteogenic aromatic amino acids and their role in the health of plants and animals. Front Mol Biosci, 2018; 5:29;

Patterson E, Ryan PM, Cryan JF, Dinan TG, Ross RP, Fitzgerald GF, Stanton C. Gut microbiota, obesity, and diabetes. Postgrad Med J, 2016; 92(1087):286–300;

Pavlou S, Lindsay J, Ingram R, Xu H, Chen M. Sustained high glucose exposure sensitizes macrophage responses to cytokine stimuli but reduces their phagocytic activity. BMC Immunol, 2018; 19(1):24;

Pennings N, Jaber J, Ahiawodzi P. Ten-year weight gain is associated with elevated fasting insulin levels and precedes glucose elevation. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2018; 34(4):e2986;

Perkison WB, Adekanye JA, de Oliveira Otto MC. Dietary interventions and type 2 diabetes in youth: a fresh look at the evidence. Curr Nutr Rep, 2018; 7(4):227–34;

Pessione E, Cirrincione S. Bioactive molecules released in food by lactic acid bacteria: encrypted peptides and biogenic amines. Front Microbiol, 2016; 7:876;

Pinu FR, Villas-Boas SG, Aggio R. Analysis of intracellular metabolites from microorganisms: quenching and extraction protocols. Metabolites, 2017; 7(4):53;

Piqué N, Berlanga M, Miñana-Galbis D. Health benefits of heat-killed (Tyndallized) probiotics: an overview. Int J Mol Sci, 2019; 20(10):2534;

Pivari F, Mingione A, Brasacchio C, Soldati L. Curcumin and type 2 diabetes mellitus: prevention and treatment. Nutrients, 2019; 11(8):1837;

Plaza-Diaz J, Ruiz-Ojeda FJ, Gil-Campos M, Gil A. Mechanisms of action of probiotics. Adv Nutr, 2019; 10(suppl_1):S49–66;

Plows JF, Stanley JL, Baker PN, Reynolds CM, Vickers MH. The pathophysiology of gestational diabetes mellitus. Int J Mol Sci, 2018; 19(11):3342;

Poznyak A, Grechko AV, Poggio P, Myasoedova VA, Alfieri V, Orekhov AN. The diabetes mellitus-atherosclerosis connection: the role of lipid and glucose metabolism and chronic inflammation. Int J Mol Sci, 2020; 21(5):1835;

Prete R, Alam MK, Perpetuini G, Perla C, Pittia P, Corsetti A. Lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides producers: a sustainable tool for functional foods. Foods, 2021; 10(7):1653;

Proença C, Ribeiro D, Freitas M, Fernandes E. Flavonoids as potential agents in the management of type 2 diabetes through the modulation of α-amylase and α-glucosidase activity: a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2022; 62(12):3137–207;

Pujiastuti DY, Ghoyatul Amin MN, Alamsjah MA, Hsu JL. Marine organisms as potential sources of bioactive peptides that inhibit the activity of angiotensin I-converting enzyme: a review. Molecules, 2019; 24(14):2541;

Qi D, Nie XL, Zhang JJ. The effect of probiotics supplementation on blood pressure: a systemic review and meta-analysis. Lipids Health Dis, 2020; 19(1):79;

Rahbar Saadat Y, Yari Khosroushahi A, Pourghassem Gargari B. A comprehensive review of anticancer, immunomodulatory, and health beneficial effects of the lactic acid bacteria exopolysaccharides. Carbohydr Polym, 2019; 217:79–89;

Raheem A, Liang L, Zhang G, Cui S. Modulatory effects of probiotics during pathogenic infections with emphasis on immune regulation. Front Immunol, 2021; 12:616713;

Rahman MM, Islam F, -Or-Rashid MH, Mamun AA, Rahaman MS, Islam MM, Meem AFK, Sutradhar PR, Mitra S, Mimi AA, Emran TB, Fatimawali, Idroes R, Tallei TE, Ahmed M, Cavalu S. The gut microbiota (Microbiome) in cardiovascular disease and Its therapeutic regulation. Front Cell Infect Microbiol, 2022; 12:903570;

Raj T, Chandrasekhar K, Kumar A, Kim SH. Recent biotechnological trends in lactic acid bacterial fermentation for food processing industries. Syst Microbiol Biomanuf, 2021:1–27; doi:101007/ s43393-021-00044-w.

Rajan L, Palaniswamy D, Mohankumar SK. Targeting obesity with plant-derived pancreatic lipase inhibitors: a comprehensive review. Pharmacol Res, 2020; 155:104681;

Rajani C, Jia W. Bile acids and their effects on diabetes. Front Med, 2018; 12(6):608–23;

Rawal LB, Biswas T, Khandker NN, Saha SR, Bidat Chowdhury MM, Khan ANS, Chowdhury EH, Renzaho A. Non-communicable disease (NCD) risk factors and diabetes among adults living in slum areas of Dhaka, Bangladesh. PLoS One, 2017; 12(10):e0184967; pone.0184967

Razmpoosh E, Javadi A, Ejtahed HS, Mirmiran P, Javadi M, Yousefinejad A. The effect of probiotic supplementation on glycemic control and lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized placebo controlled trial. Diabetes Metab Syndr, 2019; 13(1):175–82;

Reaven GM. Banting lecture 1988 Role of insulin resistance in human disease. Diabetes, 1988; 37(12):1595–607;

Reily C, Stewart TJ, Renfrow MB, Novak J. Glycosylation in health and disease. Nat Rev Nephrol, 2019; 15(6):346–66;

Ren C, Zhang Q, de Haan BJ, Zhang H, Faas MM, de Vos P. Identification of TLR2/TLR6 signaling lactic acid bacteria for supporting immune regulation. Sci Rep, 2016; 6:34561;

Reuben RC, Sarkar SL, Ibnat H, Roy PC, Jahid IK. Novel mono-and multi-strain probiotics supplementation modulates growth, intestinal microflora composition, and haemato-biochemical parameters in broiler chickens. Vet Med Sci, 2022; 8(2):668–80;

Rezac S, Kok CR, Heermann M, Hutkins R. Fermented foods as a dietary source of live organisms. Front Microbiol, 2018; 9:1785;

Rittiphairoj T, Pongpirul K, Janchot K, Mueller NT, Li T. Probiotics contribute to glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Adv Nutr, 2021; 12(3):722– 34;

Rizzello CG, Lorusso A, Montemurro M, Gobbetti M. Use of sourdough made with quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) flour and autochthonous selected lactic acid bacteria for enhancing the nutritional, textural, and sensory features of white bread. Food Microbiol, 2016; 56:1– 13;

Rizzello CG, Lorusso A, Russo V, Pinto D, Marzani B, Gobbetti M. Improving the antioxidant properties of quinoa flour through fermentation with selected autochthonous lactic acid bacteria. Int J Food Microbiol, 2017; 241:252–61;

Rohith HS, Halami PM. The combined effect of potential probioticBacillus licheniformisMCC 2514 andBifidobacterium breveNCIM 5671 towards anti-inflammatory activity on HT-29 cell lines. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2021;

Rojas-Martínez R, Aguilar-Salinas CA, Romero-Martínez M, Castro-Porras L, Gómez-Velasco D, Mehta R. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Mexican adults, 2006-2018 Salud Publica Mex, 2021; 63(6, Nov-Dic):713–24

Rooks MG, Garrett WS. Gut microbiota, metabolites, and host immunity. Nat Rev Immunol, 2016; 16(6):341–52;

Rosa DD, Dias MMS, Grzeskowiak LM, Reis SA, Conceição LL, Peluzio MDCG. Milk kefir: nutritional, microbiological, and health benefits. Nutr Res Rev, 2017; 30(1):82–96;

Rosa DD, Grzeskowiak LM, Ferreira CL, Fonseca AC, Reis SA, Dias MM, Siqueira NP, Silva LL, Neves CA, Oliveira LL, Machado AB, Peluzio Mdo C. Kefir reduces insulin resistance and inflammatory cytokine expression in an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Food Funct, 2016; 7(8):3390–401;

Rosendo-Silva D, Matafome P. Gut-adipose tissue crosstalk: a bridge to novel therapeutic targets in metabolic syndrome? Obes Rev, 2021; 22(2):e13130;

Rungruangmaitree R, Jiraungkoorskul W. Pea,Pisum sativum, and its anticancer activity. Pharmacogn Rev, 2017; 11(21):39–42;

Saeedi P, Salpea P, Karuranga S, Petersohn I, Malanda B, Gregg EW, Unwin N, Wild SH, Williams R. Mortality attributable to diabetes in 20-79 years old adults, 2019 estimates: results from the International Diabetes Federation Diabetes Atlas, 9thedition. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2020; 162:108086;

Saklayen MG. The global epidemic of the metabolic syndrome. Curr Hypertens Rep, 2018; 20(2):12;

Salari A, Ghodrat S, Gheflati A, Jarahi L, Hashemi M, Afshari A. Effect of kefir beverage consumption on glycemic control: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Complement Ther Clin Pract, 2021; 44:101443; ctcp.2021101443

Salas-Salvadó J, Guasch-Ferré M, Díaz-López A, Babio N. Yogurt and diabetes: overview of recent observational studies. J Nutr, 2017; 147(7):1452S–61S;

Salehi SO, Karimpour F, Imani H, Ghatee MA, Pirouze M, Bahramfard T. Effects of an iranian traditional fermented food consumption on blood glucose, blood pressure, and lipid profile in type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled clinical trial. Eur J Nutr, 2022; 61(7):3367–75;

Sánchez B, Delgado S, Blanco-Míguez A, Lourenço A, Gueimonde M, Margolles A. Probiotics, gut microbiota, and their influence on host health and disease. Mol Nutr Food Res, 2017; 61(1);

?anlier N, Gökcen BB, Sezgin AC. Health benefits of fermented foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2019; 59(3):506–27;

Sapra A, Bhandari P. Diabetes mellitus. StatPearls, Treasure Island, FL, 2022 Available via (Accessed 7 January 2023).

Sasaki H, Pham Thi Ngoc D, Nishikawa M, Kanauchi M. Lipopolysaccharide neutralizing protein in Miso, Japanese fermented soybean paste. J Food Sci, 2020; 85(8):2498–505;

Savaiano DA, Hutkins RW. Yogurt, cultured, fermented milk, and health: a systematic review. Nutr Rev, 2021; 79(5):599–614;

Scheithauer TPM, Rampanelli E, Nieuwdorp M, Vallance BA, Verchere CB, van Raalte DH, Herrema H. Gut microbiota as a trigger for metabolic inflammation in obesity and type 2 diabetes. Front Immunol, 2020; 11:571731;

Schippa S, Conte MP. Dysbiotic events in gut microbiota: impact on human health. Nutrients, 2014; 6(12):5786–805;

Schmid D, Song M, Zhang X, Willett WC, Vaidya R, Giovannucci EL, Michels KB. Yogurt consumption in relation to mortality from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and all causes: a prospective investigation in 2 cohorts of US women and men. Am J Clin Nutr, 2020; 111(3):689–97;

Schmitz S, Werling D, Allenspach K. Effects ofex-vivoandin-vivotreatment with probiotics on the inflammasome in dogs with chronic enteropathy. PLoS One, 2015; 10(3):e0120779; pone.0120779

Scrafford CG, Bi X, Multani JK, Murphy MM, Schmier JK, Barraj LM. Health care costs and savings associated with increased dairy consumption among adults in the United States. Nutrients, 2020; 12(1):233;

Scrafford CG, Bi X, Multani JK, Murphy MM, Schmier JK, Barraj LM. Health economic evaluation modeling shows potential health care cost savings with increased conformance with healthy dietary patterns among adults in the United States. J Acad Nutr Diet, 2019; 119(4):599–616;

Setta MC, Matemu A, Mbega ER. Potential of probiotics from fermented cereal-based beverages in improving health of poor people in Africa. J Food Sci Technol, 2020; 57(11):3935–46; 020-04432-3

Sevencan NO, Isler M, Kapucuoglu FN, Senol A, Kayhan B, Kiztanir S, Kockar MC. Dose-dependent effects of kefir on colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in rats. Food Sci Nutr, 2019; 7(9):3110–8;

Shah AS, Nadeau KJ, Dabelea D, Redondo MJ. Spectrum of phenotypes and causes of type 2 diabetes in children. Annu Rev Med, 2022; 73:501–15;

Shahbazi R, Sharifzad F, Bagheri R, Alsadi N, Yasavoli- Sharahi H, Matar C. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of fermented plant foods. Nutrients, 2021; 13(5):1516;

Sharma C, Singh BP, Thakur N, Gulati S, Gupta S, Mishra SK, Panwar H. Antibacterial effects of Lactobacillus isolates of curd and human milk origin against food-borne and human pathogens. 3 Biotech, 2017; 7(1):31;

Sharma S, Banerjee S, Krueger PM, Blois SM. Immunobiology of gestational diabetes mellitus in post-Medawar era. Front Immunol, 2022; 12:758267;

Shin D, Kongpakpaisarn K, Bohra C. Trends in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the United States 2007-2014 Int J Cardiol, 2018; 259:216–19;

Shokri Y, Variji A, Nosrati M, Khonakdar-Tarsi A, Kianmehr A, Kashi Z, Bahar A, Bagheri A, Mahrooz A. Importance of paraoxonase 1 (PON1) as an antioxidant and antiatherogenic enzyme in the cardiovascular complications of type 2 diabetes: genotypic and phenotypic evaluation. Diabetes Res Clin Pract, 2020; 161:108067;

Sigit FS, Trompet S, Tahapary DL, Harbuwono DS, le Cessie S, Rosendaal FR, de Mutsert R. Adherence to the healthy lifestyle guideline in relation to the metabolic syndrome: analyses from the 2013 and 2018 Indonesian national health surveys. Prev Med Rep, 2022; 27:101806;

Sila A, Alvarez OM, Haddar A, Frikha F, Dhulster P, Nedjar- Arroume N, Bougatef A. Purification, identification and structural modeling of DPP-IV inhibiting peptides from barbel protein hydrolysate. J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci, 2016; 1008:260–9;

Sila A, Nedjar-Arroume N, Hedhili K, Chataigné G, Balti R, Nasri M, Dhulster P, Bougatef A. Antibacterial peptides from barbel muscle protein hydrolysates: activity against some pathogenic bacteria. LWT-Food Sci Technol, 2014; 55:183–8; doi:101016/j.lwt.201307021

Silva CCG, Silva SPM, Ribeiro SC. Application of bacteriocins and protective cultures in dairy food preservation. Front Microbiol, 2018; 9:594;

Simons A, Alhanout K, Duval RE. Bacteriocins, Antimicrobial peptides from bacterial origin: overview of their biology and their impact against multidrug-resistant bacteria. Microorganisms, 2020; 8(5):639;

Singh R, Kumar M, Mittal A, Mehta PK. Microbial metabolites in nutrition, healthcare and agriculture. 3 Biotech, 2017; 7(1):15;

Singh R, Lei P, Andreadis ST. PKC-delta binds to E-cadherin and mediates EGF-induced cell scattering. Exp Cell Res, 2009; 315(17):2899– 913;

Sinha S, Haque M. Obesity is the alleyway to insulin resistance and Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adv Hum Biol, 2022; 12(2):207–9;

Sivamaruthi BS, Kesika P, Prasanth MI, Chaiyasut C. A mini review on antidiabetic properties of fermented foods. Nutrients, 2018; 10(12):1973;

Skonberg DI, Fader S, Perkins LB, Perry JJ. Lactic acid fermentation in the development of a seaweed sauerkraut-style product: microbiological, physicochemical, and sensory evaluation. J Food Sci, 2021; 86(2):334–42;

Slattery C, Cotter PD, O’Toole PW. Analysis of health benefits conferred byLactobacillusspecies from Kefir. Nutrients, 2019; 11(6):1252;

Sonali S, Ray B, Ahmed Tousif H, Rathipriya AG, Sunanda T, Mahalakshmi AM, Rungratanawanich W, Essa MM, Qoronfleh MW, Chidambaram SB, Song BJ. Mechanistic insights into the link between gut dysbiosis and major depression: an extensive review. Cells, 2022; 11(8):1362;

Song CE, Kuppusamy P, Jeong YI, Shim HH, Lee KD. Microencapsulation of endophytic LAB (KCC-41) and its probiotic and fermentative potential for cabbage kimchi. Int Microbiol, 2019; 22(1):121– 30;

Song S, Lee JE. Dietary patterns related to triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in Korean men and women. Nutrients, 2018; 11(1):8;

Stamataki NS, Yanni AE, Karathanos VT. Bread making technology influences postprandial glucose response: a review of the clinical evidence. Br J Nutr, 2017; 117(7):1001–12;

Standage-Beier CS, Bakhshi B, Parra OD, Soltani L, Spegman DJ, Molina P, Pereira E, Landes L, Mandarino LJ, Kohler LN. Fruit, vegetable, and physical activity guideline adherence and metabolic syndrome in El banco por salud. Nutrients, 2022; 14(9):1767;

Stavropoulou E, Bezirtzoglou E. Probiotics in medicine: a long debate. Front Immunol, 2020; 11:2192;

Stefanucci A, Luisi G, Zengin G, Macedonio G, Dimmito MP, Novellino E, Mollica A. Discovery of arginine-containing tripeptides as a new class of pancreatic lipase inhibitors. Future Med Chem, 2019; 11(1):5– 19;

Su HK, Tsai MH, Chao HR, Wu ML, Lu JH. Data on effect of tempeh fermentation on patients with type II diabetes. Data Brief, 2021a; 38:107310;

Su Y, Wang HK, Gan XP, Chen L, Cao YN, Cheng DC, Zhang DY, Liu WY, Li FF, Xu XM. Alterations of gut microbiota in gestational diabetes patients during the second trimester of pregnancy in the shanghai han population. J Transl Med, 2021b; 19(1):366; 03040-9

Subbaram K, Ali PSS, Ali S. Enhanced endocytosis elevated virulence and severity of SARS-CoV-2 due to hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetic patients. Gene Rep, 2022; 26:101495; genrep.2022101495

Sun B, Li Q, Dong X, Hou J, Wang W, Ying W, Hui X, Zhou Q, Yao H, Sun J, Wang X. Severe G6PD deficiency leads to recurrent infections and defects in ROS production: case report and literature review. Front Genet, 2022; 13:1035673;

Swain MR, Anandharaj M, Ray RC, Parveen Rani R. Fermented fruits and vegetables of Asia: a potential source of probiotics. Biotechnol Res Int, 2014; 2014:250424;

Syngai GG, Gopi R, Bharali R, Dey S, Lakshmanan GM, Ahmed G. Probiotics—the versatile, functional food ingredients. J Food Sci Technol, 2016; 53(2):921–33;

Szmuilowicz ED, Josefson JL, Metzger BE. Gestational diabetes mellitus. Endocrinol Metab Clin North Am, 2019; 48(3):479–93; F, Hashimoto Y, Kaji A, Sakai R, Kawate Y, Okamura T, Kitagawa N, Okada H, Nakanishi N, Majima S, Senmaru T, Ushigome E, Hamaguchi M, Asano M, Yamazaki M, Fukui M. Habitual miso (fermented soybean paste) consumption is associated with a low prevalence of sarcopenia in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study. Nutrients, 2020; 13(1):72;

Takahashi F, Hashimoto Y, Kaji A, Sakai R, Miki A, Okamura T, Kitagawa N, Okada H, Nakanishi N, Majima S, Senmaru T, Ushigome E, Hamaguchi M, Asano M, Yamazaki M, Fukui M. Habitual miso (fermented soybean paste) consumption is associated with glycemic variability in patients with type 2 diabetes: a cross-sectional study. Nutrients, 2021; 13(5):1488;

Takiishi T, Fenero CIM, Câmara NOS. Intestinal barrier and gut microbiota: shaping our immune responses throughout life. Tissue Barriers, 2017; 5(4):e1373208;

Tamang JP, Holzapfel WH, Shin DH, Felis GE. Editorial: microbiology of ethnic fermented foods and alcoholic beverages of the world. Front Microbiol, 2017; 8:1377;

Tamang JP, Watanabe K, Holzapfel WH. Review: diversity of microorganisms in global fermented foods and beverages. Front Microbiol, 2016; 7:377;

Tan KX, Chamundeswari VN, Loo SCJ. Prospects of kefiran as a food-derived biopolymer for agri-food and biomedical applications. RSC Adv, 2020; 10(42):25339–51;

Tapper EB, Salim N, Baki J, Zhao Z, Sundaram V, Patwardhan V, Nikirk SJ. Pickle juice intervention for cirrhotic cramps reduction: the PICCLES randomized controlled trial. Am J Gastroenterol, 2022; 117(6):895–901;

Tapsell LC. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk. Br J Nutr, 2015; 113(Suppl 2):S131–5;

Tarvainen M, Fabritius M, Yang B. Determination of vitamin K composition of fermented food. Food Chem, 2019; 275:515–22;

Thakur K, Tomar SK, De S. Lactic acid bacteria as a cell factory for riboflavin production. Microb Biotechnol, 2016; 9:441–51; doi:101111/1751-791512335

Tiderencel KA, Hutcheon DA, Ziegler J. Probiotics for the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a review of randomized controlled trials. Diabetes Metab Res Rev, 2020; 36(1):e3213;

Toe CJ, Foo HL, Loh TC, Mohamad R, Abdul Rahim R, Idrus Z. Extracellular proteolytic activity and amino acid production by lactic acid bacteria isolated from Malaysian foods. Int J Mol Sci, 2019; 20(7):1777;

Tran N, Pham B, Le L. Bioactive compounds in anti-diabetic plants: from herbal medicine to modern drug discovery. Biology (Basel), 2020; 9(9):252;

Trejo-González L, Gutiérrez-Carrillo AE, Rodríguez-Hernández AI, Del Rocío López-Cuellar M, Chavarría-Hernández N. Bacteriocins produced by LAB isolated from cheeses within the period 2009-2021: a review. Probiotics Antimicrob Protein, 2022; 14(2):238–51;

Tsai WH, Chou CH, Huang TY, Wang HL, Chien PJ, Chang WW, Lee HT. Heat-killed lactobacilli preparations promote healing in the experimental cutaneous wounds. Cells, 2021; 10(11):3264;

Ujiroghene OJ, Liu L, Zhang S, Lu J, Zhang C, Pang X, Lv J. Potent α-amylase inhibitory activity of sprouted quinoa-based yogurt beverages fermented with selected anti-diabetic strains of lactic acid bacteria. RSC Adv, 2019; 9(17):9486–93;

Urdaneta V, Casadesús J. Interactions between bacteria and bile salts in the gastrointestinal and hepatobiliary tracts. Front Med (Lausanne), 2017; 4:163;

Valaiyapathi B, Gower B, Ashraf AP. Pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in children and adolescents. Curr Diabetes Rev, 2020; 16(3):220– 9;

Valmori D, Raffin C, Raimbaud I, Ayyoub M. Human RORγt+ TH17 cells preferentially differentiate from naive FOXP3+Treg in the presence of lineage-specific polarizing factors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2010; 107(45):19402–7;

Vazquez-Munoz R, Thompson A, Russell JT, Sobue T, Zhou Y, Dongari-Bagtzoglou A. Insights from theLactobacillus johnsoniigenome suggest the production of metabolites with antibiofilm activity against the pathobiontCandida albicans. Front Microbiol, 2022; 13:853762;

Velmurugan G, Ramprasath T, Gilles M, Swaminathan K, Ramasamy S. Gut microbiota, endocrine-disrupting chemicals, and the diabetes epidemic. Trends Endocrinol Metab, 2017; 28(8):612–25;

Venegas-Ortega MG, Flores-Gallegos AC, Martínez-Hernández JL, Aguilar CN, Nevárez-Moorillón GV. Production of bioactive peptides from lactic acid bacteria: a sustainable approach for healthier foods. Compr Rev Food Sci Food Saf, 2019; 18(4):1039–51; 433712455

Veprik A, Laufer D, Weiss S, Rubins N, Walker MD. GPR41 modulates insulin secretion and gene expression in pancreatic β-cells and modifies metabolic homeostasis in fed and fasting states. FASEB J, 2016; 30(11):3860–69;

Villanueva-Millán MJ, Pérez-Matute P, Oteo JA. Gut microbiota: a key player in health and disease. A review focused on obesity. J Physiol Biochem, 2015; 71(3):509–25;

Villarreal-Soto SA, Beaufort S, Bouajila J, Souchard JP, Taillandier P. Understanding kombucha tea fermentation: a review. J Food Sci, 2018; 83(3):580–8;

Voidarou C, Antoniadou Μ, Rozos G, Tzora A, Skoufos I, Varzakas T, Lagiou A, Bezirtzoglou E. Fermentative foods: microbiology, biochemistry, potential human health benefits, and public health issues. Foods, 2020; 10(1):69;

Vong L, Lorentz RJ, Assa A, Glogauer M, Sherman PM. ProbioticLactobacillus rhamnosusinhibits the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. J Immunol, 2014; 192(4):1870–7;

Wafula EN, Muhonja CN, Kuja JO, Owaga EE, Makonde HM, Mathara JM, Kimani VW. Lactic acid bacteria from African fermented cereal-based products:potential biological control agents for mycotoxins in Kenya. J Toxicol, 2022; 2022:2397767;

Wahlström A, Sayin SI, Marschall HU, Bäckhed F. Intestinal crosstalk between bile acids and microbiota and its impact on host metabolism. Cell Metab, 2016; 24(1):41–50;

Wang G, Si Q, Yang S, Jiao T, Zhu H, Tian P, Wang L, Li X, Gong L, Zhao J, Zhang H, Chen W. Lactic acid bacteria reduce diabetes symptoms in mice by alleviating gut microbiota dysbiosis and inflammation in different manners. Food Funct, 2020b; 11(7):5898–914;

Wang J, Wu T, Fang X, Min W, Yang Z. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of an exopolysaccharide produced byLactobacillusplantarum JLK0142 isolated from fermented dairy tofu. Int J Biol Macromol, 2018; 115:985–93;

Wang JB, Yu LY, Zeng X, Zheng JW, Wang B, Pan, L. Screening of probiotics with efficient α-glucosidase inhibitory ability and study on the structure and function of its extracellular polysaccharide. Food Biosci, 2022; 45:101452;

Wang MC, Zaydi AI, Lin WH, Lin JS, Liong MT, Wu JJ. Putative probiotic strains isolated from kefir improve gastrointestinal health parameters in adults: a randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled study. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2020c; 12(3):840–50;

Wang X, Han M, Zhang M, Wang Y, Ren Y, Yue T, Gao Z.In vitroevaluation of the hypoglycemic properties of lactic acid bacteria and its fermentation adaptability in apple juice. LWT, 2021; 136:110363;

Wang X, Ma A, Han X, Chan L, Liang H, Litifu A, Xue F. T Cell profile was altered in pulmonary tuberculosis, patients with type 2 diabetes. Med Sci Monit, 2018; 24:636–42;

Wang Y, Liu H, Zhao J. Macrophage polarization induced by probiotic bacteria: a concise review. Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins, 2020a; 12(3):798–808; Wang Y, Luo B, Xiang J. The association between soy intake and risk of gestational diabetes mellitus: a prospective cohort study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth, 2021b; 21(1):695; 04175-9

Wang Y, Wu J, Lv M, Shao Z, Hungwe M, Wang J, Bai X, Xie J, Wang Y, Geng W. Metabolism characteristics of lactic acid bacteria and the expanding applications in food industry. Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2021a; 9:612285;

Wang Y, Wu Y, Sailike J, Sun X, Abuduwaili N, Tuoliuhan H, Yusufu M, Nabi XH. Fourteen composite probiotics alleviate type 2 diabetes through modulating gut microbiota and modifying M1/M2 phenotype macrophage in db/db mice. Pharmacol Res, 2020d; 161:105150;

Wang Y, Zhang C, Liu F, Jin Z, Xia X. Ecological succession and functional characteristics of lactic acid bacteria in traditional fermented foods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr, 2022:1–15;

Watawana MI, Jayawardena N, Choo C, Waisundara VY. Application of the Kombucha ‘tea fungus’ for the enhancement of antioxidant and starch hydrolase inhibitory properties of ten herbal teas. Food Chem, 2016; 194:304–11;

Wickens KL, Barthow CA, Murphy R, Abels PR, Maude RM, Stone PR, Mitchell EA, Stanley TV, Purdie GL, Kang JM, Hood FE, Rowden JL, Barnes PK, Fitzharris PF, Crane J. Early pregnancy probiotic supplementation withLactobacillusrhamnosus HN001 may reduce the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus: a randomized controlled trial. Br J Nutr, 2017; 117(6):804–13;

Widyastuti Y, Febrisiantosa A, Tidona F. Health-promoting properties ofLactobacilliin fermented dairy products. Front Microbiol, 2021; 12:673890;

Wolever TM. Yogurt is a low-glycemic index food. J Nutr, 2017; 147(7):1462S–7S;

World Health Organization. Global diffusion of eHealth: making universal health coverage achievable: report of the third global survey on eHealth. 2016 Available via 10 January 2023).

Wu H, Ballantyne CM. Skeletal muscle inflammation and insulin resistance in obesity. J Clin Invest, 2017; 127(1):43–54;

Wu J, Gao J, Lin J, Cui C, Li L, He S, Brennan C. Preparation and taste characteristics of kokumiN-Lactoyl phenylalanine in the presence of phenylalanine and lactate. J Agric Food Chem, 2022; 70(17):5396–407;

Wu Z, Wu J, Cao P, Jin Y, Pan D, Zeng X, Guo Y. Characterization of probiotic bacteria involved in fermented milk processing enriched with folic acid. J Dairy Sci, 2017; 100(6):4223–9;

Xia F, Wen LP, Ge BC, Li YX, Li FP, Zhou BJ. Gut microbiota as a target for prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes: mechanisms and dietary natural products. World J Diabetes, 2021; 12(8):1146–63;

Xing Y, Xu Q, Ma Y, Che Z, Cai Y, Jiang L. Effect of porous starch concentrations on the microbiological characteristics of microencapsulatedLactobacillus acidophilus. Food Funct, 2014; 5(5):972–83;

Xu S, Wang Y, Wang J, Geng W. Kombucha reduces hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes of mice by regulating gut microbiota and its metabolites. Foods, 2022b; 11(5):754;

Xu X, Qiao Y, Peng Q, Shi B, Dia VP. Antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties of partially purified exopolysaccharide fromLactobacilluscasei isolated from chinese northeast sauerkraut. Immunol Invest, 2022a; 51(4):748–65;

Yamazaki S, Ziyatdinov MK, Nonaka G. Fermentative production of sulfur-containing amino acid with engineering putative l-cystathionine and l-cysteine uptake systems inEscherichia coli. J Biosci Bioeng, 2020; 130(1):14–9;

Yang Q, Liang Q, Balakrishnan B, Belobrajdic DP, Feng QJ, Zhang W. Role of dietary nutrients in the modulation of gut microbiota: a narrative review. Nutrients, 2020; 12(2):381;

Ye Y, Chen Y, Sun J, Zhang H, Meng Y, Li W, Wang W. Hyperglycemia suppresses the regulatory effect of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in pulmonary aspergillus fumigatus infection. Pathog Dis, 2020; 78(5):ftaa038;

Yerlikaya O. Probiotic potential and biochemical and technological properties of Lactococcus lactis ssp. lactis strains isolated from raw milk and kefir grains. J Dairy Sci, 2019; 102(1):124–34;

Yoo JY, Groer M, Dutra SVO, Sarkar A, McSkimming DI. Gut microbiota and immune system interactions. Microorganisms, 2020; 8(10):1587;

Yoo JY, Kim SS. Probiotics and prebiotics: present status and future perspectives on metabolic disorders. Nutrients, 2016; 8(3):173;

Youn HS, Kim JH, Lee JS, Yoon YY, Choi SJ, Lee JY, Kim W, Hwang KW.Lactobacillus plantarumreduces low-grade inflammation and glucose levels in a mouse model of chronic stress and diabetes. Infect Immun, 2021; 89(8):e0061520;

Yousefi B, Eslami M, Ghasemian A, Kokhaei P, Salek Farrokhi A, Darabi N. Probiotics importance and their immunomodulatory properties. J Cell Physiol, 2019; 234(6):8008–18;

Yuan T, Yang T, Chen H, Fu D, Hu Y, Wang J, Yuan Q, Yu H, Xu W, Xie X. New insights into oxidative stress and inflammation during diabetes mellitus-accelerated atherosclerosis. Redox Biol, 2019; 20:247– 60;

Yun YR, Kim HC, Seo HY. Antiobesity effects of kimchi added with Jeju citrus concentrate on high-fat diet-induced obese mice. Nutr Res, 2021b; 86:50–9;

Yun YR, Lee JJ, Lee HJ, Choi YJ, Lee JH, Park SJ, Park SH, Seo HY, Min SG. Comparison of quality characteristics of commercial Kimchi manufactured in Korea, China, and the United States. Foods, 2021a; 10(10):2488;

Zepeda-Hernández A, Garcia-Amezquita LE, Requena T, García-Cayuela T. Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics added to dairy products: uses and applications to manage type 2 diabetes. Food Res Int, 2021; 142:110208;

Zhang S, Gang X, Yang S, Cui M, Sun L, Li Z, Wang G. The alterations in and the role of the Th17/Treg balance in metabolic diseases. Front Immunol, 2021; 12:678355;

Zhang YJ, Li S, Gan RY, Zhou T, Xu DP, Li HB. Impacts of gut bacteria on human health and diseases. Int J Mol Sci, 2015; 16(4):7493– 519;

Zhang Z, Apse K, Pang J, Stanton RC. High glucose inhibits glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase via cAMP in aortic endothelial cells. J Biol Chem, 2000; 275(51):40042–7;

Zhao G, Ding LL, Hadiatullah H, Li S, Wang X, Yao Y, Liu J, Jiang S. Characterization of the typical fragrant compounds in traditional Chinese-type soy sauce. Food Chem, 2020; 312:126054; foodchem.2019126054

Zheng QX, Wang HW, Jiang XM, Ge L, Lai YT, Jiang XY, Huang PP, Chen F, Chen XQ. Changes in the gut metabolic profile of gestational diabetes mellitus rats following probiotic supplementation. Front Microbiol, 2022; 13:779314;

Zhou H, Liu F. Regulation, communication, and functional roles of adipose tissue-resident CD4+ T cells in the control of metabolic homeostasis. Front Immunol, 2018; 9:1961;

Zhou K, Lansang MC. Diabetes mellitus and infections. In: Feingold KR, Anawalt B, Boyce A (Eds.)., South Dartmouth, MA, 2000 Available via 7 January 2023).

Zhu Y, Zhang C. Prevalence of gestational diabetes and risk of progression to Type 2 diabetes: a global perspective. Curr Diab Rep, 2016; 16(1):7;

Zhu Z, He H, Zhou J, Zhang T, Zhou G, Zhuang G, Wang P, Liu A. Soy product consumption and type 2 diabetes among adults in Beijing, China. Asia Pac J Clin Nutr, 2019; 28(1):150–6;

Zielinska, D.; Kolozyn-Krajewska, D. Food-origin lactic acid bacteria may exhibit probiotic properties. Bio Med Res Int, 2018; 2018: 1–15

Zukiewicz-Sobczak W, Wróblewska P, Adamczuk P, Silny W. Probiotic lactic acid bacteria and their potential in the prevention and treatment of allergic diseases. Cent Eur J Immunol, 2014; 39(1):104–8;

Zuo T, Ng SC. The gut microbiota in the pathogenesis and therapeutics of inflammatory bowel disease. Front Microbiol, 2018; 9:2247;

Article Metrics

0 Absract views 4 PDF Downloads 4 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required