Evaluation of physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of creams formulated using Pterocarpus santalinoides seeds methanol extract

Sinodukoo Eziuzo Okafo Clement Oliseloke Anie Christian Arerusuoghene Alalor Lawrence Uchenna Nwankwo   

Open Access   

Published:  Jan 01, 2023

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.19934

To formulate Pterocarpus santalinoides seed methanol extract creams and evaluate them for antimicrobial activity. About 200 g of powdered dried seeds was macerated in 400 ml of methanol for 48 hours, and its collected filtrate was concentrated at 60°C using a rotary evaporator for 6 hours. The antimicrobial activities of the methanol extract against Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans were evaluated. Six cream formulations, P1–P6, were formulated with or without varying the methanol extract concentrations of P. santalinoides. The creams were oil-in-water in nature, with good homogeneity, extrudability, spreadability, and ease of removal. The creams’ pH was between 5.0 ± 0.29 and 5.5 ± 0.17. The viscosities of the formulations ranged from 3,600 to 48,950 mPas at 6 rpm and 1,240 to 6,390 mPas at 60 rpm using spindle 4. The microorganisms used were susceptible to the effect of the methanol extract at 100 mg/ml. All bacteria tested were also susceptible to the creams, but the fungi tested were susceptible only to formulations P4, P5, and P6. Creams with good physicochemical and antimicrobial activities against test organisms were successfully prepared using the methanol extract of P. santalinoides

Keyword:     Pterocarpus santalinoides creams; antimicrobials microorganisms extrudability methanol extract


Okafo SE, Anie CO, Alalor CA, Nwankwo LU. Evaluation of physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of creams formulated using Pterocarpus santalinoides seeds methanol extract. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2023. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2023.19934

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Members may alsodeposit reference listshere too.

Akaniro-Ejim EN, Ibe MI, Engwa GA. Polyphenol content and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous-ethanol extracts of Pterocarpus soyauxii and Pterocarpus santalinoides. Glob J Med Res (B), 2018; 18(2):1-8.

Ashish A, Mohini K, Abhiram R. Preparation and evaluation of polyherbal cosmetics cream. Pharm Lett, 2013; 5(1):83-8.

Asija R, Dhaker PC, Nama N. Formulation & evaluation of voriconazole ointment for topical delivery. J Drug Discov Ther, 2015; 3(26):07-14.

Biswas B, Rogers K, Mclaughlin F, Daniels D, Yadav A. Antimicrobial activities of leaf extracts of guava (Psidium guajava L.) on two gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. Int J Microbiol, 2013; 2013:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2013/746165

Bolla PK, Clark BA, Juluri A, Cheruvu HS, Renukuntla J. Evaluation of formulation parameters on permeation of ibuprofen from topical formulations using strat-m® membrane. Pharmaceutics, 2020; 12:151. https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics12020151

Chandrasekar R, Priyanka K, Sakhira K, Sreeprada K, Harshita K, Haripriya B, NiranjanBabu M. Formulation and stability evaluation of natural preservatives in poly-herbal skin care cream. Int J Res Dev Pharm L Sci 2018; 7(3):2999-3005. https://doi.org/10.21276/IJRDPL.2278-0238.2018.7(3).2999-3005

Chauhan L, Gupta S. Creams: a review on classification, preparation methods, evaluation and its applications. J Drug Deliv Ther, 2020; 10(5-s):281-9. https://doi.org/10.22270/jddt.v10i5-s.4430

Chen MX, Alexander KS, Baki G. Formulation and Evaluation of Antibacterial Creams and Gels Containing Metal Ions for Topical Application. J Pharm 2016; http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/5754349 https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5754349

Deepika P, Singh RK. Formulation and characterization of an antibacterial cream from Lantana camara leaf extract. Pharm Chem J, 2017; 4(5):137-42.

Emencheta SC, Enweani IB, Oli AN, Okezie UM, Attama AA. Evaluation of antimicrobial activities of fractions of plant parts of Pterocarpus santalinoides. Biotechnol J Int, 2019; 23(3):1-11. https://doi.org/10.9734/bji/2019/v23i330081

Ezeonu CS, Ejikeme CM. Qualitative and quantitative determination of phytochemical contents of Indigenous Nigerian softwoods. New J Sci, 2016; 2016:9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/5601327

Fauzee AFB, Walker RB. The impact of formulation variables on the optimization of pilot scale clobetasol 17-propionate creams. Cogent Eng, 2020; 7:1804713. https://doi.org/10.1080/23311916.2020.1804713

Hartiadi LY, Sahamastuti AAT. Protective effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract against H2O2-induced oxidative stress on HaCaT and its formulation as antioxidant cream. J Res Pharm, 2020; 24(4):508-17. https://doi.org/10.35333/jrp.2020.199

Idson B, Lazarus J. Semisolids. In: Lachman L, Lieberman HA (eds.). The theory and practice of industrial pharmacy, CBS Publishers & Distributors Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi, India, pp.534-63, 2009.

Ilievska B, Loftsson T, Hjalmarsdottir MA, Asgrimsdottir GM. Topical formulation comprising fatty acid extract from cod liver oil: development, evaluation and stability studies. Mar Drugs 2016; 14:105 https://doi.org/10.3390/md14060105

Kaushik K, Sharma RB, Sharma A, Agarwal S. Evaluation of antifungal activity of crude methanolic extract of leaves of Ipomoea carnea and its formulation as a gel. J Res Pharm, 2020; 24(3):368-79. https://doi.org/10.35333/jrp.2020.159

Khalifa AA, Hanan SA, Wesam AK, Fouzy A, Salem ME. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of "Retama" extract grown in Zliten Libya. Int J Med Sci Clin Invent 2017; 4(4):2861-6.

Khan S, Mulla G, Bhise K. Development and characterization of topical nanoparticulate antipsoriatic polyherbal cream. Int J App Pharm, 2020; 12(3):67-73. https://doi.org/10.22159/ijap.2020v12i3.36911

Khullar R, Kumar D, Seth N, Saini S. Formulation and evaluation of mefenamic acid emulgel for topical delivery. Saudi Pharm J, 2012; 20:63-7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2011.08.001

Mba-Omeje KN, Ugwu CC, Ezugwu RI, Iloputaife EJ. Antimicrobial and phytochemical studies of Carica papaya leaves against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. World J Pharm Pharm Sci, 2017; 7(1):180-9.

Moldovan M, Lahmar A, Bogdan C, Parauan S, Tomuta I, Crisan M. Formulation and evaluation of a water-in-oil cream containing herbal active ingredients and ferulic acid. Clujul Med, 2017; 90(2):212-9. https://doi.org/10.15386/cjmed-668

Nworu CS, Akah PA, Nwachukwu JO, Asogwa C. Antidiarrhoeal activity of Pterocarpus santalinoides L'Herit ex DC leaf extract. J Compl Integr Med. 2009; 6(1):1553-60. https://doi.org/10.2202/1553-3840.1241

Obanewa OA, Oyeniran OT. Development and estimation of anti-inflammatory activity of topical etoricoxib emulgel by carrageenan induced paw oedema method. Uni J Pharm Res 2019; 4(3):22-358.

Odeh IC, Tor-Anyiin TA. Phytochemical and antimicrobial evaluation of leaf-extracts of Pterocarpus santalinoides. Eur J Med Plants, 2014; 4(1):105-15. https://doi.org/10.9734/EJMP/2014/5455

Ogbonna PC, Idumah MC. Phytochemical and mineral content in leaves, stem and bark of Pterocarpus santalinoides (Nturukpa) from Afikpo, Ebonyi State, Nigeria. J Appl Sci Environ Manage, 2018; 22(8):1147-50. https://doi.org/10.4314/jasem.v22i8.1

Okafo SE, Akpo CO, Okafor CC. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial herbal creams from aqueous extract of Moringa oleifera Lam seeds. Nig J Sci Environ, 2020; 18(1):50-7.

Okafo SE, Anie CO, Nwanua MC. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial topical creams from ethanolic extract of Vernonia ambigua Leaves. Nig J Pharm Res, 2019; 15(2):249-55 https://doi.org/10.4314/njpr.v15i2.12

Okafo SE, Enwa FO, Amusile O. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial properties of Psidium guajava ethanol leaf extract creams. Trop J Nat Prod Res, 2021; 5(12):2144-8.

Onyekere PF, Enebechi CK, Nnamani DO, Peculiar-Onyekere CO, Okonta EO. Phytochemical analysis and antimicrobial activity of methanol extract of the leaves of Hippocratea welwitschii Oliv (celastraceae). Afr J Pharm Res Dev, 2019; 11(2):106-15.

Ordu JI, Sunday BR, Okafo SE. Evaluation of the activity of Garcinia kola seed oil and honey on skin cream formulation. Pharm Innov J, 2018; 7(5):675-81.

Pal TK, Dutta D, Banerjee R, Maity S. Formulation and evaluation of antimicrobial topical semisolid dosage form containing whole plant extract of Biophytum sensitivum. An Int J, 2013; 1(7):641-6.

Rai R, Poudyl AP, Das S. Pharmaceutical creams and their use in wound healing: a review. J Drug Deliv Ther, 2019; 9(3-s):907-12.

Sekar M, Jalil NSA. Formulation and evaluation of novel antibacterial and anti-inflammatory cream containing Muntingia calabura leaves extract. Asian J Pharm Clin Res, 2017; 10(12):376-9. https://doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i12.21963

Shaik NB, Gera S, Kukati L, Goverdhanam H. Formulation and evaluation of emulgel of flurbiprofen. Int Res J Pharm, 2019; 10(8):68-76. https://doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.1008248

Swabrick J, Rubino JT, Rubino OP. Coarse dispersion. In: Remington. The science and practice of pharmacy. 21st edition, Pharmaceutical Press, London, UK, pp 319-37, 2005.

Trease GE, Evans WC. Textbook of pharmacognosy. 14th edition, Balliere Tindall, London, UK, 2002.

Ubaid M, Ilyas S, Mir S, Khan AK, Rashid R, Khan MZU, Kanwal ZG, Nawaz A, Shah A, Murtaza G. Formulation and in vitro evaluation of carbopol 934-based modified clotrimazole gel for topical application. An Acad Bras Ciên 2016; 88(4): 2303-17. https://doi.org/10.1590/0001-3765201620160162

Ugandar RE, Deivi KS. Formulation and evaluation of natural palm oil based vnishing cream. Int J Pharm Sci Res, 2013; 4(9):3375-80.

Article Metrics

0 Absract views 1 PDF Downloads 1 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required