Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans isolated in children with early childhood caries – An in vitro study

Nipun Jain Balagopal R Varma Suresh J Kumar Parvathy Kumaran Arun Mamachan Xavier   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 15, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2023.130213
Abstract

Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans have a unique microbial feature that plays an essential role in early childhood caries (ECC). This study aimed to isolate C. albicans and S. mutans in children with ECC and observe the antimicrobial effect of 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). Children in the age group of 3–6 years were selected. The sample was collected using a sterile cotton swab from the tooth surface, streaked on sabouraud dextrose agar (HIMedia) plates, and incubated at 37°C for 24 hours. Disk diffusion and agar well diffusion methods were used to detect the susceptibility of C. albicans and S. mutans to 0.2% CHX. The mean zone of inhibition of CHX for C. albicans was 12.4 ± 0.59 mm, and S. mutans showed a zone of inhibition of 20.85 ± 1.18 mm. CHX was effective against both C. albicans and S. mutans, showing more antibacterial activity than antifungal activity.


Keyword:     Chlorhexidine gluconate Candida albicans Streptococcus mutans early childhood caries antimicrobial activity


Citation:

Jain N, Varma RB, Kumar JS, Kumaran P, Xavier AM. Antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine on Candida albicans and Streptococcus mutans isolated in children with early childhood caries – An in vitro study. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2022. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2023.130213

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text

Reference

Barbieri DdSAV, Vicente VA, Fraiz FC, Lavoranti OJ, Svidzinski TIE, Pinheiro RL. Analysis of the in vitro adherence of Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans. Braz J Microbiol, 2007; 38:624-31. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1517-83822007000400009

de Carvalho FG, Silva DS, Hebling J, Spolidorio LC, Spolidorio DMP. Presence of mutans streptococci and Candida spp. in dental plaque/ dentine of carious teeth and early childhood caries. Arch Oral Biol, 2006; 51(11):1024-8. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2006.06.001

Ellepola K, Truong T, Liu Y, Lin Q, Lim TK, Lee YM, Cao T, Koo H, Seneviratne CJ. Multi-omics analyses reveal synergistic carbohydrate metabolism in Streptococcus mutans-Candida albicans mixed-species biofilms. Infect Immun, 2019; 87(10):e00339-19. https://doi.org/10.1128/IAI.00339-19

Forssten SD, Björklund M, Ouwehand AC. Streptococcus mutans, caries and simulation models. Nutrients, 2010; 2(3):290-8. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu2030290

Ghasempour M, Sefidgar SAA, Eyzadian H, Gharakhani S. Prevalence of C.albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site. Casp J Intern Med, 2011; 2(4):304.

Hossain H, Ansari F, Schulz-Weidner N, Wetzel WE, Chakraborty T, Domann E. Clonal identity of C.albicans in the oral cavity and the gastrointestinal tract of preschool children. Oral Microbial Immunol, 2003; 18(5):302-8. https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1399-302X.2003.00086.x

Jarosz LM, Deng DM, van der Mei HC, Crielaard W, Krom BP.Streptococcus mutans competence-stimulating peptide inhibits Candida albicans hypha formation. Eukaryot Cell, 2009; 8:1658-64. https://doi.org/10.1128/EC.00070-09

Lozano Moraga CP, Rodriguez Martinez GA, Lefimil Puente CA, Morales Bozo IC, Urzúa Orellana BR. Prevalence of C.albicans and carriage of Candida non-albicans in the saliva of preschool children, according to their caries status. Acta Odontol Scand, 2017; 75(1):30-5. https://doi.org/10.1080/00016357.2016.1244560

Marchant S, Brailsford SR, Twomey AC, Roberts GJ, Beighton D. The predominant microflora of nursing caries lesions. Caries Res, 2001; 35(6):397-406. https://doi.org/10.1159/000047482

Moeintaghavi A, Arab H, Khajekaramodini M, Hosseini R, Danesteh H, Niknami H. In vitro antimicrobial comparison of chlorhexidine, persica mouthwash and miswak extract. J Contemp Dent Pract, 2012; 13:147-52. https://doi.org/10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1111

Neves AB, Lobo LA, Pinto KC, Pires ES, Requejo ME, Maia LC, Antonio AG. Comparison between clinical aspects and salivary microbial profile of children with and without early childhood caries: a preliminary study. J Clin Pediatr Dent, 2015; 39(3):209-14. https://doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-39.3.209

Rozkiewicz D, Daniluk T, Zaremba ML, Cylwik-Rokicka D, Stokowska W, Pawi?ska M, Dabrowska E, Marczuk-Kolada G, Waszkiel D. Oral C.albicans carriage in healthy preschool and school children. Adv Med Sci, 2006; 51:187-90.

Sajjan P, Laxminarayan N, Kar PP, Sajjanar M. Chlorhexidine as an antimicrobial agent in dentistry - a review. Oral Health Dent Manag, 2016; 15(2):93-100.

Shino B, Peedikayil FC, Jaiprakash SR, Bijapur GA, Kottayi S, Jose D. Comparison of antimicrobial activity of chlorhexidine, coconut oil, probiotics, and ketoconazole on C.albicans isolated in children with early childhood caries: an in vitro study. Scientifica, 2016; 2016:7061587. https://doi.org/10.1155/2016/7061587

Tirali RE, Bodur H, Sipahi B, Sungurtekin E. Evaluation of the antimicrobial activities of chlorhexidine gluconate, sodium hypochlorite and octenidine hydrochloride in vitro. Aust Endod J, 2013; 39(1):15-8. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-4477.2010.00266.x

Thomas A, Mhambrey S, Chokshi K, Chokshi A, Jana S, Thakur S, Jose D, Bajpai G. Association of oral C.albicans with severe early childhood caries-a pilot study. J Clin Diagn Res, 2016; 10(8):ZC109-12. https://doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2016/19387.8357

Tinanoff N, Baez RJ, Guillory CD, Donly KJ, Feldens CA, McGrath C, Phantumvanit P, Pitts NB, Seow WK, Sharkov N, Songpaisan Y, Twetman S. Early childhood caries epidemiology, aetiology, risk assessment, societal burden, management, education, and policy: global perspective. Int J Paediatr Dent, 2019; 29(3):238-48. https://doi.org/10.1111/ipd.12484

Xiao J, Moon Y, Li L, Rustchenko E, Wakabayashi H, Zhao X, Feng C, Gill SR, McLaren S, Malmstrom H, Ren Y, Quivey R, Koo H, Kopycka-Kedzierawski DT. C.albicans carriage in children with severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) and maternal relatedness. PloS One, 2016; 11(10):e0164242. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0164242

Article Metrics

0 Absract views 1 PDF Downloads 1 Total views

   Abstract      Pdf Download

Related Search

By author names

Citiaion Alert By Google Scholar

Name Required
Email Required Invalid Email Address

Comment required