Traditional Indian literature enlists many methods and agents to treat snake envenomation, but most of these methods are not pharmacologically investigated. This study evaluates snake venom-antagonizing properties of the aqueous extracts of five plants, viz. Sapindus laurifolius, Spondias pinnata, Plumeria lutea, Woodfordia fruticosa, and Croton roxburghii, against the venoms of the spectacled cobra and Russell’s viper. Inhibitions of venom lethality, hemorrhage, coagulation, and enzymes were studied to determine the action of the plant extracts. Median lethal dose values of Naja naja and Daboia russelii venoms in mice were 0.625 and 4.0 mg/kg, respectively, when determined as per the modified guidelines by Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Woodfordia fruticosa presented ~20- and ~5-fold neutralization capacities in vitro and in vivo, respectively. Plant extracts under investigation presented changes in hemorrhagic and coagulant activities in varying degrees. Spondias pinnata and W. fruticosa neutralized the activity of phospholipase A2 and acetylcholinesterase almost completely in vitro. Woodfordia fruticosa presented relatively fair results among the studied plants, and molecular investigations of its isolates can lead us to new molecules. Easy-to-administer drugs with better safety margins can be great lifesavers in remote places where the chances of a snake bite are higher and medical resources are sparse.
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