Streptococcal infections: Race to multidrug resistance-A review

Rihana Begum Patnool Thirumoorthy Vithya Ashish Wadhwani V. Balasubramaniam Sivasankaran Ponnusankar   

Open Access   

Published:  Apr 23, 2022

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2022.120901

According to the World Health Organization, the bacterial resistance to antimicrobial drugs has emerged as one of the major universal problems that requires and needs prime attention by humankind due to the emerging resistant acquired by many of the bacterial species which allows them to evade both antimicrobial drugs and the immune system. Streptococcus species (e.g., Streptococcus pneumonia, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Streptococcus pyogenes) are categorized serologically and are grounded on carbohydrates present in the cell wall into different groups, such as Group A to Group V. There are over 85 capsule antigenic types of S. pneumoniae, 124 serotypes of S. pyogenes, and 9 S. agalactiae with capsular polysaccharide serotypes (CPS). The primary cause for the failure of treatment for streptococcal infections is the enhanced resistance to antimicrobial drugs. Recently, infections caused by Streptococci resistant to multiple drugs have been increasing with a substantial affect to public health. Among Streptococcus species, drug resistance develops due to the excessive use of antibiotics. Streptococcus strains are also known as biofilm markers. The improved resistance of biofilms to antimicrobials among Streptococcus species stimulates persistent infection, which includes around 80% of bacterial infections in people. This review mainly focuses on the problem concerning Streptococcus species that is categorized and prioritized by the WHO.

Keyword:     Antibiotic resistance antimicrobial drugs multidrug resistance Streptococcus species GAS.


Patnool RB, Vithya T, Wadhwani A, Balasubramaniam V, Ponnusankar S. Streptococcal infections: Race to multidrug resistance-A review. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2022. doi:

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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