Review Article | Volume: 11, Issue: 4, April, 2021

Traditional and complementary medicine practice in Malaysia: A comprehensive review of scientific evidences

Nor Dalila Marican Nik Alif Amri Nik Hashim Mohd Hafzal Abdul Halim Ahmad Fahme Mohd Ali Naziatul Aziah Mohd Radzi   

Open Access   

Published:  Apr 05, 2021

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2021.110401
Abstract

Background: In the Malaysian healthcare system, the juxtaposition of mainstream medicine, which is traditional and complementary medicine (TCM), has now become an essential component. Despite the highly prevalent practice of TCM among Malaysians, the limited evidence of TCM modalities for explicit health conditions has given rise to doubt and controversy within the medical line. This study intends to gather extant scientific evidence of TCM practice in Malaysia which would eventually benefit the complementary and conventional medical profession.

Methods: In the pursuit for literature pertaining to the scientific research of TCM in Malaysia, databases that include Science Direct, PubMed, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), and Elton B. Stephens Company (EBSCO) host were used to gather the relevant articles comprising all forms of nonexperimental, experimental, and case report data that are limited to the Malaysian population setting.

Results: Eight full-text research articles have achieved the inclusion criteria that comprise the trials involving five types of modalities which are medical herbalism, chiropractic, acupressure, aromatherapy, and acupuncture. The most unexplored aspects of designing intervention studies of TCM are the thoughtful and systematic development of treatment protocols. These results point to some potentials for TCM in Malaysian healthcare management in which there is an urgent need for more rigorous research into the value of such treatments.

Conclusion: The popularity of TCM has created a need for empirical studies to evaluate the scientific evidence of practice as a method of treatment regime. This study gives a broader summary of the existing literature on the efficiency of TCM for various health conditions which may have an implication for patient care.


Keyword:     Traditional medicine Malaysia healthcare effectiveness efficacy.


Citation:

Marican ND, Hashim NAAN, Halim MHA, Ali AFM, Radzi NAM. Traditional and complementary medicine practice in Malaysia: A comprehensive review of scientific evidences. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2021; 11(04):001–005.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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INTRODUCTION

Traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) is among the practices used to enhance Malaysians well-being which is common especially among the community in rural areas (Kew et al., 2015; Nik Hashim et al., 2019; Siti et al., 2009; Marican et al., 2019). According to the National Policy, TCM is described as a method that involves health-associated activities aimed at preventing, treating, and/or controlling disease, as well as maintaining not only the physical state but also the mental state of individuals. Hence, this includes practices such as Islamic medical practices, traditional Malay, Chinese, or Indian medicines, and homeopathy or complementary therapy but does not include dental or medical practices by registered dental or medical practitioners (Marican et al., 2016). The TCM division, regulated by the Ministry of Health of Malaysia, is crucial for developing TCM, as well as the safety and quality of their practices and products.

The overall trend in Malaysia shows that 79.4% choose TCM, while 20.5% choose biomedicine for wellness and health maintenance purposes (Othman and Farooqui, 2015). The combined use of biomedicine and TCM is common and therefore it reflects an increasing popularity of TCM in Malaysia. Since these are regularly used by people to enhance health and well-being, it is crucial to investigate the scientific and biomedical spectrum to raise understanding between the public and mainstream clinicians (Mehta and Dhapte, 2015). The Ministry of Health Malaysia plays a role in assessing the evidence based on specific topics referred to complementary therapies remit including looking at the possibility of integrating therapy into the hospital setting and developing appropriate policies to support this.

It is generally accepted that current treatments are scientifically based and, in most cases, have already been tested in a controlled laboratory environment for their effectiveness and efficacy (Isidora et al., 2016; Pritzker and Hui, 2012). According to the Ministry of Health Malaysia (2011), evidence-based medicine entails a definite use of explicit evidential decisions on treatments involving patients. In this regard, TCM practices may be employed by conventional practitioners if their safety and effectiveness are established through scientific studies (Shakeel et al., 2011). To date, no review has assessed the scientific evidence of TCM focusing on the Malaysian population setting. This review aims to identify the scientific basis behind its working and efficacy of these therapies so that eventually it would be able to improve the present-day scenario of modern medicine.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Inclusive studies into clinical research were carried out via four major databases of CINAHL, PubMed, EBSCOhost, and Science Direct, which involve the fields of nursing, biomedical, and specialist traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine (TCAM) for determining all clinical trials and reviews on TCM as a therapeutic practice in Malaysia. The relevant articles comprise all forms of nonexperimental, experimental, and case report data; however, the interventions were only subject to TCM practices among Malaysians in treating and managing various health conditions irrespective of the age group. The basic search terms used comprising traditional medicine, complementary medicine, Malaysia, intervention, scientific, clinical trials, experiment, effectiveness, and efficiency. In order to achieve the largest selection of studies, there was no cap on the date of publication; nonetheless, the review only included articles that are written in English as the publication language. The literature search process is shown in Figure 1.


RESULTS

Table 1 provides an overview of TCM practices in Malaysia in terms of evidence-based practices. The searches identified eight clinical studies which have been successful in using a quantitative approach. These studies were executed using a randomized controlled trial study design, which is generally accepted as the gold standard for evaluating the effect of a particular treatment in clinical research. Three studies investigated biological-based therapy (Tualang honey, Ulam Raja, and black cumin); one study focused on acupressure, chiropractic, and aromatherapy, respectively, while the remaining two studies explored the effects of acupuncture.

Research on biological-based therapy

A single-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out by Muhamad et al. (2017) to gauge the efficiency of the Tualang honey supplement regime on pulmonary function and the general well-being of individuals and societies, which is also known as the quality of life (QoL). Thirty-four men who were identified to have a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were enrolled and randomized to two groups: intervention and control. The intervention group participants consumed 20 mg/sachet/day of Tualang honey as a supplement for a 6-month interval from the usual COPD treatment. Those in the control group were given regular COPD treatment including the medication and advice for a healthy lifestyle. The life quality and pulmonary function were assessed using St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) and spirometer, respectively. The findings revealed that the use of Tualang honey greatly increased both the lung function and the patients’ QoL.

Cheng et al. (2015) conducted an experimental study and found a positive effect of Cosmos caudatus (Ulam Raja) involving 101 patients who have type 2 diabetes (recruited and randomized to the intervention or control groups). Participants in the intervention group took 15 g of fresh C. caudatus every day for 8 weeks with a standard lifestyle and were encouraged to follow physical activity recommendations and medical nutrition therapy. However, the participants in the control group were required to avoid consuming C. caudatus apart from receiving the same lifestyle interventions as the intervention group. After 8 weeks of C. caudatus supplementation, the intervention group recorded a substantial drop in serum insulin and Homeostatic Model Assessment (HOMA)-Insulin Resistance (IR) but a rise in Quantitative Insulin-Sensitivity Check Index (QUICKI) as opposed to the control group.

Figure 1. Literature search process.

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Table 1. TCM practice in Malaysia in terms of evidence-based practices.

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A randomized controlled trial by Ibrahim et al. (2014) recorded that Nigella sativa or black cumin significantly induced hypolipidemic effects involving menopausal women. This trial includes 37 menopausal women, who were randomized to either the treatment or placebo groups and consumed either N. sativa or placebo for 2 months. At the initial treatment stage, blood samples were drawn at a 1-month interval to a month after the trial ended. Based on the results, compared to the placebo treatment, N. sativa has positive impacts on the lipid profiles of menopausal women, such as a drop in the total amount of cholesterol with low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and triglyceride (TG), as well as increased high-density lipoprotein (HDL).

Research on acupressure

Hmwe et al. (2015) carried out an open-label randomized controlled trial to examine how acupressure affects depression, anxiety, and stress involving 108 patients with hemodialysis. There were two groups, in which the participants in the acupressure group were given routine hemodialysis treatment and a 15-minute-acupressure thrice a week over the course of 4 weeks, while the control group only received routine care including hemodialysis treatment. Furthermore, the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-21 Item (DASS-21) was employed to determine the levels of depression and anxiety, as well as stress at pre- and postintervention. Overall, results show that the level of depression, anxiety, and stress of participants in the acupressure group is significantly improved as opposed to the control group.

Research on chiropractic

A cross-over randomized controlled trial by Win et al. (2015) was carried out to investigate the relationship between spinal manipulative therapy (SMT) of the upper cervical spine against the lower cervical spine including autonomic response involving pain-free subjects, as well as the patients with acute mechanical neck pain. Twenty-five asymptomatic normotensive patients were recruited and given an upper cervical SMT (C1 or C2) in the 2nd week or a lower cervical SMT (C6 or C7). Blood pressure, heart rate, and pain scores in both groups were taken after the upper cervical SMT and the lower cervical SMT. Overall, the findings indicated that upper cervical SMT enhanced the parasympathetic dominance and lower cervical SMT enhanced the sympathetic dominance activity in the group comprising young volunteers.

Research on aromatherapy

In Lua et al.’s (2015) study, a cross-over randomized controlled study design was adopted. One hundred and forty-five chemotherapy breast cancer patients were recruited and assigned randomly to two study groups. Group 1 patients were given ginger fragrance oil (placebo) throughout the first chemotherapy treatment, followed by ginger essential oil during the subsequent treatment. Meanwhile, Group 2 patients were initially given ginger essential oil during the initial chemotherapy treatment and placebo (ginger fragrance oil) during the subsequent treatment. Using a 100 mm Visual Analog Scale (VAS), the nausea score reduced subsequently to the inhalation of ginger essential oil as opposed to that of the placebo group throughout the acute phase; however, this was not sustained for the overall effect of treatments. Additionally, significant changes were observed in health quality as a result of nausea and vomiting, constipation, role functioning, the state of global health, loss of appetite, pain, and fatigue.

Research on acupuncture

Lee et al. (2014) examined how acupuncture affects the immune function of 12 patients with chronic prostatitis or pelvic pain syndrome using the prospective randomized clinical trial research design. There were two study groups, acupuncture and sham acupuncture, which were administrated bilaterally at four acupuncture points: CV1-Huiyin; CV4-GuanYuan; SP6-Sanyinjiao; and SP9-Yinlingquan. The administration excluded needle stimulation inserted to a depth from 40 to 60 mm. For sham acupuncture, the arm received shallow needling that is 0.5 cm apart from the acupuncture points, whereas each placement of needle lasted about 30 minutes, twice a week over the course of 10 weeks. Briefly, the study reported that the level of the natural killer (NK) cells in the acupuncture group, on average, cumulated by 5% in comparison with the sham group.

Lua and Talib (2013) conducted the longitudinal open-labeled randomized study to examine how auricular acupuncture potentially manages drug addiction based on a comparison between the clinical results of the sole methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) and MMT plus auricular acupuncture. The Malay version of the World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) was employed to measure the QoL of 97 males who were enrolled in the three MMTs. Findings implied that both groups have significantly reduced the number of cigarettes smoked and reduced methadone dose with auricular acupuncture in controlling addiction, which provides additional benefits as an adjunct to MMT.


DISCUSSION

TCAMs address a huge pool of ailments and provide a medium, which plays a paramount role in human health and welfare (Mehta and Dhapte, 2015). TCAM is widely used in various countries around the world, particularly among chronic patients or those with long-term illnesses (Chitindingu et al., 2014), including managing the stress and depression (Manshile et al., 2019). Based on the National Health and Morbidity Survey 2015 as reported by the Ministry of Health Malaysia, Malaysians use TCM for many purposes such as for treatments involving diseases and medical conditions, for example, musculoskeletal pain. However, the safety and effectiveness of TCM remain a primary concern among the scientific community regarding its acceptance (Ng et al., 2016).

Many surveys have been monitoring the prevalence and determinants of TCM use with less focus on methodology and clinical effects. Due to numerous flaws and problems, the information provided is less reliable. Anecdotal claims are also increasing for TCM involving how conditions such as arthritis, migraine, and multiple sclerosis are treated; however, there is scarce clinical evidence in this context. Hence, the medical community does not approve the TCM practitioners’ claims because the efficacy assessments based on evidence of scientific study either are not available or have not been carried out by many of these practices (Ng et al., 2016). As these practices are commonly used in the community to enhance health status, it is essential to explore their scientific evidence and biomedical scope (Mehta and Dhapte, 2015).


CONCLUSION

Evidence-based TCM is still very much lacking, especially in the Malaysian setting. More researches are needed to prove the accuracy of TCM practices and also to avoid any misleading claim. As such, it is important to evaluate research evidence on the effectiveness of a therapy in order to ensure that the practices are carried out on the basis of scientific knowledge than belief.


CONFLICT OF INTEREST

All authors have declared that they do not have any conflict of interest.


FUNDING

This work was supported by the Ministry of Higher Education Malaysia under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS), R/FRGS/A1100/01416A/002/2019/00676.


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Nik Hashim NAA, Velayuthan SK, Yusoff AM, Awang Z, Muhammad Safri FH. Validating the measuring instrument for motivation factors towards visiting spa and wellness tourism destinations in Kuala Lumpur. Int J Innov Technol Exploring Eng, 2019: 8(9S):1106-1108. CrossRef

Othman CN, Farooqui M. Traditional and complementary medicine. Procedia Soc Behav Sci, 2015; 170:262–71. CrossRef

Pritzker S, Hui KK. Building an evidence-base for TCM and integrative east-west medicine: a review of recent developments in innovative research design. J Tradit Complement Med, 2012; 2(3):158–63. CrossRef

Shakeel M, Dilnawaz P, Ziyaurrrahman, Safura K, Chanderprakash B. Alternative system of medicine in India: a review. Int Res J Pharm, 2011; 2:29–37.

Siti ZM, Tahir A, Farah AI, Fazlin SMA, Sondi S, Azman AH, Maimunah AH, Haniza MA, Haslinda MDS, Zulkarnain AK, Zaleha WCW. Use of traditional and complementary medicine in Malaysia: a baseline study. Complement Ther Med, 2009; 11:292–9. CrossRef

Win NN, Jorgensen AMS, Chen YSC, Haneline MT. Effects of upper and lower cervical spinal manipulative therapy on blood pressure and heart rate variability in Volunteers and patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study. J Chiropr Med, 2015; 14:1–9 CrossRef

Reference

Cheng SH, Ismail A, Anthony J, Ng OC, Hamid AA, Barakatun- Nisak MY. Eight weeks of cosmos Caudatus (Ulam Raja) supplementation improves glycemic status in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med, 2015; 2015:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/405615

Chitindingu E, George G, Gow J. A review of the integration of traditional, complementary, and alternative medicine into the curriculum of South African medical school. BMC Med Educ, 2014; 14:1-5. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-14-40

Hmwe NTT, Subramanian P, Tan LP, Chong WK. The Effects of acupressure on depression, anxiety and stress in patients with hemodialysis: a randomized controlled trial. Int J Nurs Stud, 2015; 52:509-18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2014.11.002

Ibrahim RM, Hamdan NS, Mahmud R, Imam MU, Saini SM, Rashid SNR, Ghafar SAA, Latiff LA, Ismail M. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of nigella sativa seeds powder in menopausal women. J Transl Med, 2014; 12:1-7. https://doi.org/10.1186/1479-5876-12-82

Isidora C, Huang CC, Sheen LY. Publishing scientifically sound papers in traditional and complementary medicine. J Tradit Complement Med, 2016; 6:1-4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2015.12.005

Kew Y, Chai YL, Lai SM, Chong KY, Ho XL, Liew DW, Moy FM, Selvarajah S. Traditional and complementary medicine (TCM) among study population with cardiovascular risk; use and substitution for conventional medicine in Pahang, Malaysia. Med J Malaysia, 2015; 70:86- 92.

Lee SWH, Liong ML, Yuen KH, Krieger JN. Acupuncture and immune function in chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain Syndrome: a randomized, controlled study. Complement Ther Med, 2014; 22:965-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2014.10.010

Lua PL, Salihah N, Mazlan N. Effects of inhaled ginger aromatherapy on chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and health-related quality of life in women with breast cancer. Complement Ther Med, 2015; 23:396-404. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2015.03.009

Lua PL, Talib NS. Auricular acupuncture for drug dependence: an open-label randomized investigation on clinical outcomes, health-related quality of life, and patient acceptability. Altern The Health Med, 2013; 19:28-42.

Manshile SP, Tshisikhawe MP, Masevhe NA. Medical plants used in the treatment of maternal health-related problem by the Mapulana of Ehlanzeni District, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2019; 9:21-9. https://doi.org/10.7324/JAPS.2019.91204

Marican, ND, Abdul Halim MH, Mohd Nor MA, Mohd Nasir MF. Reflexology: A modality in manipulative and body based method. Indian Journal of Public Health Research and Development, 2019, 10(5): 515-519. https://doi.org/10.5958/0976-5506.2019.01056.8

Marican ND, Marican AF, Mohd Yasin NH, Hasbollah HR, Mohd Nasir MF, Abdul Halim MH. Fundamental of traditional and complementary medicine. Power Action Resources, Kajang, Malaysia, 2016.

Mehta P, Dhapte V. Cupping therapy: a prudent remedy for a plethora of medical ailments. J Tradit Complement Med, 2015; 5:127-34. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtcme.2014.11.036

Ministry of Health Malaysia. Traditional and complementary medicine programme in Malaysia. Traditional and Complementary Medicine Division, Ministry of Health Malaysia, Putrajaya, Selangor, Malaysia, 2011

Muhamad R, Draman N, Aziz AA, Abdullah S, Jaeb MZM. The effect of tualang honey on the quality of life of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized controlled trial. J Taibah Univ Med Sci, 2017; 13:42-50. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jtumed.2017.05.014

Ng JY, Boon HS, Thompson AK, Whitehead CR. Making Sense of "Alternative", "Complementary", "Unconventional" and "Integrative" Medicine: Exploring the Terms and meanings through a textual analysis. BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016; 16:1-18. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12906-016-1111-3

Nik Hashim NAA, Velayuthan SK, Yusoff AM, Awang Z, Muhammad Safri FH. Validating the measuring instrument for motivation factors towards visiting spa and wellness tourism destinations in Kuala Lumpur. Int J Innov Technol Exploring Eng, 2019: 8(9S):1106-1108. https://doi.org/10.35940/ijitee.I1175.0789S19

Othman CN, Farooqui M. Traditional and complementary medicine. Procedia Soc Behav Sci, 2015; 170:262-71. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2015.01.036

Pritzker S, Hui KK. Building an evidence-base for TCM and integrative east-west medicine: a review of recent developments in innovative research design. J Tradit Complement Med, 2012; 2(3):158-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2225-4110(16)30095-5

Shakeel M, Dilnawaz P, Ziyaurrrahman, Safura K, Chanderprakash B. Alternative system of medicine in India: a review. Int Res J Pharm, 2011; 2:29-37.

Siti ZM, Tahir A, Farah AI, Fazlin SMA, Sondi S, Azman AH, Maimunah AH, Haniza MA, Haslinda MDS, Zulkarnain AK, Zaleha WCW. Use of traditional and complementary medicine in Malaysia: a baseline study. Complement Ther Med, 2009; 11:292-9. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2009.04.002

Win NN, Jorgensen AMS, Chen YSC, Haneline MT. Effects of upper and lower cervical spinal manipulative therapy on blood pressure and heart rate variability in Volunteers and patients with neck pain: a randomized controlled, cross-over, preliminary study. J Chiropr Med, 2015; 14:1-9 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcm.2014.12.005

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