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Volume: 9, Issue: 10, October, 2019
DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2019.91007



Research Article

Isolation and properties of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme from buffalo liver: Application in AST and ALT assay diagnostic kits


Mohamed S. Helmy, Hassan M.M. Masoud, Doaa A. Darwish, Mohamed M. Abdel-Monsef, Mahmoud A. Ibrahim

  Author Affiliations


Abstract

Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) enzyme is a major component of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) diagnosis kits. In this work, the LDH enzyme was purified and characterized from buffalo liver for direct application in the preparation of AST and ALT diagnosis kits. One major LDH (BLLDH) isoform and two other secondary LDH peaks were analyzed for buffalo liver by diethylaminoethyl (DEAE) cellulose chromatography. BLLDH was obtained by ammonium sulfate sedimentation and chromatographically separated on ion exchange and size-exclusion matrices. The isolated BLLDH has a specific activity of 17.6 units/mg proteins represented 16 folds and 32% recovery. BLLDH was manifested homogeneous on native and SDS gels with 35 kDa native mass. Optimum pH of BLLDH was displayed at pH 7.6. BLLDH activity was diminished by FeCl2 and SDS. The produced BLLDH is utilized in constructing of AST and ALT diagnosis kits that were sensible and analogous to trade ready kits.

Keywords:

Lactate dehydrogenase, purification, characterization, buffalo liver, AST and ALT diagnostic kits.



Citation: Helmy MS, Masoud HM, Darwish DA, Abdel-Monsef MM, Ibrahim MA. Isolation and properties of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme from buffalo liver: Application in AST and ALT assay diagnostic kits. J Appl Pharm Sci, 2019; 9(10):054–060.


Copyright: The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

References

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem, 1976; 72:248-54.https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2697(76)90527-3

Butt AA, Michaels S, Greer D, Clark R, Kissinger P, Martin DH. Serum LDH level as a clue to the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. AIDS Read, 2002; 12(7):317-21.

Darwish DA, Masoud HMM, Abdel-Monsef MM, Helmy MS, Ibrahim MA. Purification and characterization of malate dehydrogenase from sheep liver (Ovis aries): application in AST assay diagnostic kit. J App Pharm Sci, 2018; 8(02):100-5.

Holmes RS, Goldberg E. Computational analyses of mammalian lactate dehydrogenases: human, mouse, opossum and platypus LDHs. Comput Biol Chem, 2009; 33(5):379-85.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compbiolchem.2009.07.006

Huijgen HJ, Sanders GTB, Koster RW, Vreeken J, Bossuyt PMM. The clinical value of lactate dehydrogenase in serum: A quantitative review. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem, 1997; 35(8):569-79.

Javed MH, Yousuf FA, Hussain AN, Ishaq M, Waqar MA. Purification and properties of lactate dehydrogenase from liver of Uromastix hardwickii. Comp Biochem Physiol, 1995; 111(1):27-34.https://doi.org/10.1016/0305-0491(94)00230-R

Kadiyala SV. A Study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in oral cancer and oral submucosal fibrosis patients amoung the normal individuals. J Pharm Sci Res, 2015; 7(7):455-7.

Karamanos Y. Purification and characterisation of lactate dehydrogenase: an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment. Adv Biochem, 2014; 2(1):14-23.https://doi.org/10.11648/j.ab.20140201.13

Ketchum CH, Robinson CA, Hall LM, Grizzle WE, Maclaren NK, Riley WJ, Trost C. Clinical significance and partial biochemical characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme. Clin Chem, 1984; 30(1):46-9.

Kim HS, Lee HE, Yang HK, Kim WH. High lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression correlates with high tumoral and stromal vascular endothelial growth factor expression in gastric cancer. Pathobiol, 2014; 81(2):78-85.https://doi.org/10.1159/000357017

Labrou NE, Clonis YD. Biomimetic dye affinity chromatography for the purification of bovine heart lactate dehydrogenase. J Chromatog A, 1995; 718:35-44.https://doi.org/10.1016/0021-9673(95)00661-3

Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of Bacteriophage T4. Nature, 1970; 227:680-5.https://doi.org/10.1038/227680a0

Li P, Jin S, Huang L, Liu H, Huang Z, Lin Y, Zheng Y. Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva. Exp Parasit, 2013; 134:190-4.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.exppara.2013.02.013

Nadeem MS, Nissar A, Shahid S, Imtiaz A, Mahfooz M, Asghar MT, Shakoori A. Purification and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase from the heart ventricles of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Pakistan J Zool, 2011; 43(2):315-9.

Nadeem MS, Moran J, Murtaza BN, Muhammad K, Ahmad H. Cloning, E. coli expression, and characterization of heart lactate dehydrogenase B from river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Anim Biotechnol, 2014; 25(1):23-34.https://doi.org/10.1080/10495398.2013.804832

Qian G, Chen C, Zhai R, Shao W, Mei Y. Expression, purification and characterization of a thermostable lactate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima. Chinese J Biotech, 2014; 30(4):545-53.

Rao K, Babu SG, Kumari S. Estimation of serum and salivary lactate dehydrogenase levels among healthy individuals and oral cancer patients- A clinical and biochemical study. Int J Dent Res, 2017; 2(2):31-5.https://doi.org/10.31254/dentistry.2017.2203

Schurr A. Lactate, not pyruvate, is the end product of glucose metabolism via glycolysis. In: Carbohydrate. Intechopen, Istanbul: Mahmut Caliskan, I. Halil Kavakli and Gul Cevahir Oz, pp 21-35, 2017.https://doi.org/10.5772/66699

Smith I. Acrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. In: Electrophoretic techniques. Academic press, New York: Smith, I, pp. 365-515, 1969.https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-1-4831-9706-7.50015-4

Thomas L. Clinical laboratory diagnostics. Thomas, L, Frankfurt, Germany, pp 55-65, 1998.

Weber K, Osborn M. The reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J Biol Chem, 1969; 244:4406-12.

Whitt GS. Developmental genetics of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of fish. J Exp Zool, 1970; 175:1-35.https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.1401750102

Xu HN, Kadlececk S, Profka H, Glickson JD, Rizi R, Li LZ. Is higher lactate an Indicator of tumor metastatic risk? A pilot MRS study using hyperpolarized (13) C-pyruvate. Acad Radiol, 2014; 21(2):223-31.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.acra.2013.11.014

Zheng X, Wang K, Xu L, Ye P, Cai S, Lu H, Bao C, Kong J. The effect of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels on lung cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2017; 10(10):14179-86.

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INTRODUCTION

Lactate dehydrogenases (L-lactate: NAD oxidoreductase, EC 1.1.1.27; LDH) are glycolytic enzymes that initiate the pyruvates reduction to lactates under anaerobic cases (Li et al., 2013). LDHs are present in almost all living organisms since the enzyme was separated and described from animals, plants, and bacteria by diverse chromatographic techniques (Qian et al., 2014). LDH is detected in nearly whole creatures since it is playing a significant part in the metabolism of carbohydrates. Through situations when pyruvate manufacture in glycolysis surpasses the cell capability in pyruvate oxidizing, LDH transforms pyruvate to lactate and hence repeats the oxidized Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) necessary for more glycolysis. Furthermore, LDH permits the lactates diversion to pyruvates; and the obtained pyruvates and Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced (NADH) can then be employed for different operations (Kadiyala, 2015). In animal tissues, LDH is generated by two genes, called LDH A and LDH B. LDH A gene is strongly expressed in muscles and livers (M isozyme), while LDH B gene is strongly expressed in hearts (H isozyme). Nearly in whole kinds, the gene yields compose tetramer compounds with different properties slightly relying on the proportional quantities of various isoenzymes that exist in the tetramer (Schurr, 2017). The two common LDH subunits (LDH-M) and (LDH-H) found in circulation can compose five tetramers (isoforms): 4H, 4M, 3H1M, 2H2M, and 1H3M (Nadeem et al., 2014). High level of LDH in serum was found in myocardial infarction, liver disease, renal disease, malignant diseases, progressive muscle dystrophy, and certain forms of anemia (Holmes and Goldberg, 2009; Ketchum et al., 1984). LDH can be used as a marker for tumor, heart attack, hypothyroidism, anemia, preeclampsia, meninges and brain inflammations, severe pancreatitis, HIV, lungs and liver diseases, and tissues collapse (Butt et al., 2002; Kim et al., 2014; Xu et al, 2014). LDH and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) enzymes are major constituents in aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) diagnosis kits that are very precise in the determination of AST and ALT enzymes levels in the blood, serum, and plasma. AST and ALT kits are at most employed as livers job marker tools in diagnostics, controlling, and treating hepatic illnesses (Darwish et al., 2018; Huijgen et al., 1997). Thus, the leading goal of this search is purifying, describing, and producing LDH enzyme from buffalo livers as the home available origin for use in constructing AST and ALT diagnosis kits.


MATERIALS AND METHODS

Liver tissues

Water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) liver tissue samples of six different animals were gained from a local slaughter-house and stocked at −40˚C.

Chemicals

Bovine serum albumin, DEAE cellulose, NADH, Nitroblue tetrazolium salt (NBT), Sodium pyruvate, Lithium lactate, Phenazine methosulfate (PMS), Sephacryl S-300, Standard proteins for molecular weights, and electrophoresis chemicals were bought from Sigma-Aldrich Chemical Co. All other chemical compounds were of analytical degree.

Assay of Lactate dehydrogenase activity

The activity LDH assay is measured by the method described by Nadeem et al. (2011). The test mixture consists of 3 ml 0.1 M phosphate buffer pH 7.0, 0.22 mM NADH, 0.2 mM sodium pyruvate, and enzyme solution. The variation in absorbance at 340 nm was followed for 5 minutes and LDH activity units were calculated by Beer–Lambert law, utilizing 6,220 M−1 cm−1extinction coefficient value of NADH. For LDH isoenzyme patterns on polyacrylamide gels, the gels were flooded in 50 ml 0.1M Tris-HCl, pH 8, 288 mg lithium lactate, 14 mg NAD, 3.5 mg NBT, and traces of PMS. In dark, gels were incubated in this staining mixture at 37˚C until appearing of dark blue bands (Whitt, 1970).

Purification of buffalo liver lactate dehydrogenase (BLLDH)

Preparation of crude extract

Buffalo liver tissues were homogenized in 0.05 M Na phosphate buffer pH 7.4 including 10 mM Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol by Omni mixer homogenizer. Cells debris and not soluble materials were segregated with centrifuging at 5,000 × g for 20 minutes with saving the supernatant as a crude extract.

Ammonium sulfate precipitation

Solid (NH4)2SO4 was progressively added to the crude extract till be 40% saturated and stirred for 30 minutes at 4 °C followed by 20 minutes centrifugation at 8,000 × g. The pellets from this stage were thrown out and the supernatant was 80% Solid (NH4)2SO4 saturated followed by 30 minutes centrifugation at 12,000 × g and the precipitate was gained and dissolved in 0.02 M Na phosphate buffer pH 7.4 including 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol and dialyzed extensively versus the same buffer.

DEAE-cellulose and Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography

The 40%–80% (NH4)2SO4 portion was loaded on DEAE cellulose column (12 cm × 2.4 cm i.d.) already equilibrated with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 containing 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol. For further purification, the DEAE cellulose portions retaining LDH activity were pooled and concentrated by lyophilization. The concentrated DEAE-cellulose material was loaded over Sephacryl S-300 column (142 cm × 1.75 cm i.d.) equilibrated by 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 including 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol.

Electrophoretic analysis

Electrophoretic analysis of the purified LDH enzyme was performed on 7% PAGE (Smith, 1969) and 12% SDS-PAGE (Laemmli, 1970), while its molecular mass was detected according to Weber and Osborn (1969).

Staining of proteins was carried out utilizing 0.25% Coomassie Brilliant Blue R-250.

Protein determination

Proteins concentration was detected by Bradford method (1976) utilizing albumin from bovine serum as a standard.

Preparation of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) diagnostic kits

The purified buffalo liver LDH and the previously purified sheep liver MDH (Darwish et al., 2018) are employed in constructing AST and ALT diagnosis kits. The AST kit consists of two solutions; 80 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.8, 240 mM L-aspartate, 900 U/L LDH and 600 U/L MDH and 12 mM 2-oxoglutarate and 0.18 mM NADH. ALT kit consists of two solutions; 80 mM Tris-HCl buffer pH 7.5, 500 mM L-Alanine, 1200 U/L LDH and 15 mM 2-oxoglutarate and 0.18 mM NADH (Thomas, 1998).


RESULTS

Purification of buffalo liver lactate dehydrogenase (BLLDH)

The procedure of the major buffalo liver LDH purification is summarized in Table 1. The LDH specific activity of buffalo liver crude extracts was detected as 1.1 units/mg protein. The chromatographic pattern of the buffalo liver LDH on DEAE cellulose matrix showed one major LDH activity peak collected by 0.05 M NaCl and designated BLLDH and other two minor LDH activity peaks (Fig. 1a). The major BLLDH fractions were gathered, lyophilized, and furthermore loaded on Sephacryl S-300 column (Fig. 1b) which showed one peak of LDH. After chromatography, BLLDH specific activity was elevated to 17.6 units/mg showing 16-folds and 32% outputs (Table 1).

Table 1. A typical purification scheme of BLLDH.



[Click here to view]

Molecular weight, electrophoretic analyses, and Optimum pH of BLLDH

In this study, the BLLDH pureness was inspected by analyzing on 7% native-PAGE. BLLDH isoenzyme demonstrated a unique protein band identical with the LDH isozyme band corroborating the pureness of the preparation (Fig. 2a and 2b). The molecular weight of BLLDH was deduced from both gel filtration column as well as SDS-PAGE to be 35 kDa (Fig. 1b and 3a). The maximum activity of BLLDH enzyme was investigated with Tris-HCl buffer, pH (7.0–9.0) since BLLDH enzyme manifested its optimum activity at pH 7.6 (Fig. 3b).

Figure 1. (a) A typical elution profile for the chromatography of the buffalo liver ammonium sulfate fraction on DEAE-cellulose column (6 cm × 2.4 cm i.d.) previously equilibrated with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 containing 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol. (b) A typical elution profile for the chromatography of the buffalo liver DEAE-cellulose fraction (BLLDH) on Sephacryl S-300 column (142 cm × 2.4 cm i.d.) previously equilibrated with 0.02 M sodium phosphate buffer pH 7.4 containing 10 mM EDTA and 1 mM β-mercaptoethanol.

[Click here to view]

Figure 2. Electrophoretic analysis of BLLDH on 7% native PAGE: (1) crude extract, (2) ammonium sulfate fraction, (3) 0.05M NaCl DEAE-cellulose fraction, and (4) Sephacryl S-300 purified fraction (a) protein pattern and (b) LDH isoenzyme activity pattern.

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Figure 3. (a) Subunit molecular weight determination by Electrophoretic analysis of BLLDH on 12% SDS-PAGE (1) Low molecular weight marker proteins and (2) purified BLLDH. (b) Effect of pH on the purified buffalo liver lactate dehydrogenase (BLLDH) using phosphate buffer, pH 7.2–9.0.

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Influence of divalent cations and different inhibitors on BLLDH

The influence of metal cations on BLLDH activity was tested. MgCl2 and ZnCl2 elevated the activity of BLLDH, while FeCl2, CuCl2, and NiCl2 minimized it (Table 2). The BLLDH inhibition was performed by pre-incubating inhibitors with BLLDH at 37˚C for 5 minutes and inhibition percent was derived as a rate of a non-inhibited specimen. SDS and N-ethylmaleimide inhibited the purified enzyme vigorously (Table 3).

Comparison of the constructed AST and ALT kits with commercially available kits

BLLDH is employed in constructing the ALT diagnosis kit. Also, BLLDH and the purified sheep liver malate dehydrogenase SLMDH previously purified in our lab (Darwish et al., 2018) are employed in constructing the AST diagnosis kit. The manufactured kits have been compared with commercially available kits utilizing 30 different individual samples (Tables 4 and 5).

Table 2. Effect of divalent cations on the purified BLLDH.



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Table 3. Effect of inhibitors on the purified BLLDH.



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DISCUSSION

LDH enzyme can be considered as a bio-indicator for liver, muscular, and cancer troubles (Rao et al., 2017; Zheng et al., 2017). LDH and MDH enzymes are predominant constituents of AST and ALT diagnosis kits, which are used as liver function biomarkers (Darwish et al., 2018; Huijgen et al., 1997). In this study, the purification process of buffalo liver LDH (BLLDH) included crude extraction, (NH4)2SO4 fractionation, DEAE-cellulose column, and Sephacryl S-300 column. This purification method is considered to be appropriate and proportionally short and consists only of two chromatographic steps. Diverse LDH purification processes were reported, LDH from liver of Uromastix hardwickii (Javed et al., 1995), LDH from yak Hypoderma sinense larva (Li et al., 2013), LDH from pig heart (Karamanos, 2014), LDH from heart ventricles of river buffalo (Nadeem et al., 2011), and LDH from bovine heart (Labrou and Clonis, 1995). The BLLDH enzyme obtained from the gel filtration column with 17.6 units/mg protein specific activity, 16 purification folds, and 32% output (Table 1). Large diversity of LDH purification folds and yield ratios were notified. LDH of H. sinense larva by 280-folds and 195 U/mg protein (Li et al., 2013), LDH of pig heart by 54.96 folds and 26.93 U/mg protein (Karamanos, 2014), and LDH of river buffalo heart ventricles with 48-fold and 410 U/mg protein (Nadeem et al., 2011).

Table 4. Comparison of the constructed AST kit with a commercially available kit.



[Click here to view]

In this study, the BLLDH pureness was inspected on 7% native-PAGE that manipulated single protein band matched enzyme activity band supporting homogeneity and pureness of BLLDH (Fig. 2). The intact molecular weight of BLLDH obtained from gel filtration was established as 35 kDa. The molecular mass of BLLDH isoenzyme was affirmed by SDS-PAGE revealing that BLLDH is a monomer 35 kDa protein (Fig. 3a). Consistent with BLLDH, LDH from the liver of U. hardwickii is a monomer protein of 34 kDa (Javed et al., 1995), from H. sinense larva is 36 kDa (Li et al., 2013), from pig heart is a monomer protein of 36 kDa (Karamanos, 2014), and from river buffalo heart ventricles is 36 ± 2 kDa (Nadeem et al., 2011). BLLDH showed its maximum activity at pH 7.6 (Fig. 3b) consistent with optimum pH of LDH from the liver of U. hardwickii at pH 7.5 (Javed et al., 1995), while river buffalo heart ventricles LDH was at pH 7 (Nadeem, et al., 2011). In this study, MgCl2 and ZnCl2 increased the activity of the purified BLLDH. FeCl2 was a potent inhibitor of BLLDH activity while CuCl2 and NiCl2 inhibited BLLDH activity moderately (Table 2). Consistent with this, Cu2+, Co2+, and Mn2+ have shown inhibitory effects toward LDH from the liver of U. hardwickii (Javed et al., 1995). SDS was the potent inhibitor for the purified BLLDH which is also inhibited by PMSF suggesting that BLLDH active site contains a serine residue. BLLDH was inhibited by iodoacetamide indicating the role of methionine, cysteine, and histidine residues on structure and activity of the enzyme. N-Ethylmaleimide inhibited BLLDH indicating the presence of -SH group in enzymatic action (Table 3).

Table 5. Comparison of the constructed ALT kit with a commercially available kit.



[Click here to view]

Both AST and ALT diagnosis kits are used to observe the liver job to follow the diverse hepatic diseases (Darwish et al., 2018; Zheng et al., 2017). Here, BLLDH is employed in the manufacturing of ALT diagnosis kit. Also, BLLDH and the previously purified sheep liver malate dehydrogenase SLMDH (Darwish et al., 2018) are utilized in constructing the AST diagnosis kit. The two manufactured kits were found sensitive when compared to ready trade kits. The distinction between structured and trade kits was noticed somewhat within the empirical error.


CONCLUSION

This study presents the first description of BLLDH. It was purified with simple and suitable purification steps from local source contain a large amount of the enzyme. Both BLLDH and SLMDH enzymes were included in the construction of ALT and AST diagnostic kits. The two prepared kits were found sensitive, accurate, and competent with the purchased kits. Production of these two kits on a large scale for commercial use will be our task for the future.


CONFLICTS OF INTEREST

The authors state that there are no conflicts of interest.


ACKNOWLEDGMENT

National Research Centre, Egypt is greatly appreciated for funding of this work, Agreement No. 11010403.


REFERENCES

Bradford MM. A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein-dye binding. Anal Biochem, 1976; 72:248–54. CrossRef

Butt AA, Michaels S, Greer D, Clark R, Kissinger P, Martin DH. Serum LDH level as a clue to the diagnosis of histoplasmosis. AIDS Read, 2002; 12(7):317–21.

Darwish DA, Masoud HMM, Abdel-Monsef MM, Helmy MS, Ibrahim MA. Purification and characterization of malate dehydrogenase from sheep liver (Ovis aries): application in AST assay diagnostic kit. J App Pharm Sci, 2018; 8(02):100–5.

Holmes RS, Goldberg E. Computational analyses of mammalian lactate dehydrogenases: human, mouse, opossum and platypus LDHs. Comput Biol Chem, 2009; 33(5):379–85. CrossRef

Huijgen HJ, Sanders GTB, Koster RW, Vreeken J, Bossuyt PMM. The clinical value of lactate dehydrogenase in serum: A quantitative review. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem, 1997; 35(8):569–79.

Javed MH, Yousuf FA, Hussain AN, Ishaq M, Waqar MA. Purification and properties of lactate dehydrogenase from liver of Uromastix hardwickii. Comp Biochem Physiol, 1995; 111(1):27–34. CrossRef

Kadiyala SV. A Study of salivary lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels in oral cancer and oral submucosal fibrosis patients amoung the normal individuals. J Pharm Sci Res, 2015; 7(7):455–7.

Karamanos Y. Purification and characterisation of lactate dehydrogenase: an undergraduate biochemistry laboratory experiment. Adv Biochem, 2014; 2(1):14–23. CrossRef

Ketchum CH, Robinson CA, Hall LM, Grizzle WE, Maclaren NK, Riley WJ, Trost C. Clinical significance and partial biochemical characterization of lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme. Clin Chem, 1984; 30(1):46–9.

Kim HS, Lee HE, Yang HK, Kim WH. High lactate dehydrogenase 5 expression correlates with high tumoral and stromal vascular endothelial growth factor expression in gastric cancer. Pathobiol, 2014; 81(2):78–85. CrossRef

Labrou NE, Clonis YD. Biomimetic dye affinity chromatography for the purification of bovine heart lactate dehydrogenase. J Chromatog A, 1995; 718:35–44. CrossRef

Laemmli UK. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of Bacteriophage T4. Nature, 1970; 227:680–5. CrossRef

Li P, Jin S, Huang L, Liu H, Huang Z, Lin Y, Zheng Y. Purification and properties of a monomeric lactate dehydrogenase from yak Hypoderma sinense larva. Exp Parasit, 2013; 134:190–4. CrossRef

Nadeem MS, Nissar A, Shahid S, Imtiaz A, Mahfooz M, Asghar MT, Shakoori A. Purification and characterization of lactate dehydrogenase from the heart ventricles of river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Pakistan J Zool, 2011; 43(2):315–9.

Nadeem MS, Moran J, Murtaza BN, Muhammad K, Ahmad H. Cloning, E. coli expression, and characterization of heart lactate dehydrogenase B from river buffalo (Bubalus bubalis). Anim Biotechnol, 2014; 25(1):23–34. CrossRef

Qian G, Chen C, Zhai R, Shao W, Mei Y. Expression, purification and characterization of a thermostable lactate dehydrogenase from Thermotoga maritima. Chinese J Biotech, 2014; 30(4):545–53.

Rao K, Babu SG, Kumari S. Estimation of serum and salivary lactate dehydrogenase levels among healthy individuals and oral cancer patients- A clinical and biochemical study. Int J Dent Res, 2017; 2(2):31–5. CrossRef

Schurr A. Lactate, not pyruvate, is the end product of glucose metabolism via glycolysis. In: Carbohydrate. Intechopen, Istanbul: Mahmut Caliskan, I. Halil Kavakli and Gul Cevahir Oz, pp 21–35, 2017. CrossRef

Smith I. Acrylamide gel disc electrophoresis. In: Electrophoretic techniques. Academic press, New York: Smith, I, pp. 365–515, 1969. CrossRef

Thomas L. Clinical laboratory diagnostics. Thomas, L, Frankfurt, Germany, pp 55–65, 1998.

Weber K, Osborn M. The reliability of molecular weight determinations by dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. J Biol Chem, 1969; 244:4406–12.

Whitt GS. Developmental genetics of the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes of fish. J Exp Zool, 1970; 175:1–35. CrossRef

Xu HN, Kadlececk S, Profka H, Glickson JD, Rizi R, Li LZ. Is higher lactate an Indicator of tumor metastatic risk? A pilot MRS study using hyperpolarized (13) C-pyruvate. Acad Radiol, 2014; 21(2):223–31. CrossRef

Zheng X, Wang K, Xu L, Ye P, Cai S, Lu H, Bao C, Kong J. The effect of serum lactate dehydrogenase levels on lung cancer prognosis: a meta-analysis. Int J Clin Exp Med, 2017; 10(10):14179–86.

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