Research Article | Volume: 8, Issue: 11, November, 2018

Biocontrol potential of extracellular proteins from Xenorhabdus nematophilus on dengue vectors and the enhancement by response surface methodology

Vani Chandrapragasam Anu Jacob J. Christina Lydia Jayachandran   

Open Access   

Published:  Nov 30, 2018

DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2018.81119

Dengue fever is a prevalent and rapidly spreading disease. It is best controlled by controlling its vectors. Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the primary and secondary worldwide vectors, respectively, which are bred in peridomestic man-made water containers. Biological control is the most effective and sustainable method as there is no resurgence effect and does not harm humans. Our study includes the use of extracellular proteins of Xenorhabdus nematophilus, a Gram-negative bacterium widely used as biocontrol agents belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The mortality rates of fourth instar larvae A. aegypti when treated with 250 μg of extracellular proteins of X. nematophilus, recorded to be 40% after 72 hours of exposure. The rate of mortality was observed minimum even at higher concentration. The optimization of the medium through response surface methodology showed that there was an increase in the production of extracellular proteins. These proteins played a very important role in the control of A. aegypti. The maximum rate of mortality was recorded to be 92% when treated with 200 μg of extracellular proteins within 48 hours of treatment. Our research proved that the media optimization enhanced the production of extracellular proteins in the X. nematophilus and it can be used as a biocontrol agent for the control of dengue vector.

Keyword:     Xenorhabdus nematophilus extracellular proteins dengue vector.


Vani C, Jacob A, Christina Lydia J. Biocontrol potential of extracellular proteins from Xenorhabdus nematophilus on dengue vectors and the enhancement by response surface methodology. J App Pharm Sci, 2018; 8(11): 131–139.

Copyright: © The Author(s). This is an open-access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

HTML Full Text


Abbot WS. A method of computing the effectiveness of an insecticide. J Econ Entomol, 1925; 18:265–7.

Ahmad R, Al-Shorgani NN, Hamid AA, Yusoff WMW, Daud F. Optimization of medium components using response surface methodology (RSM) for mycelium biomass and exopolysaccharide production by Lentinus squarrosulus. Adv Biosci Biotechnol, 2013; 4:1079–85.

Box GEP, Behnken DW. Some new three level designs for the study of quantitative variables. Techno Metrics, 1960; 2:455–75.

Brammacharry U, Paily K. Chitinase like activity of metabolites of Pseudomonas fluorescens Migula on immature stages of the mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae). Afr J Microbiol Res, 2012; 6:2718–26.

Caldas C, Cherqui A, Pereira A, Simões N. Purification and characterization of an extracellular protease from Xenorhabdus nematophila involved in insect immunosuppression. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2002; 68:1297–304.

Chandran R, Azeez PA. Outbreak of dengue in Tamil Nadu, India. Curr Sci India, 2015; 109:171–6.

Dans AL, Dans LF, Lansang MAD, Silvestre MAA, Guyatt GH. Controversy and debate on dengue vaccine series-paper 1: review of a licensed dengue vaccine: inappropriate subgroup analyses and selective reporting may cause harm in mass vaccination programs. J Clin Epidemiol, 2018; 95:137–9.

Fang XL, Feng JT, Zhang WG, Wang YH, Zhang X. Optimization of growth medium and fermentation conditions for improved antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila TB using a statistical approach. Afr J Biotechnol, 2010; 9:8068–77.

Fattah AYR, Soliman NA, Gaballa AA, Sary SA, Ei- Diwany AI. Lipase production from novel thermophilic Bacillus sp: application of Plackett Burman design for evaluating culture conditions affecting enzyme formation. Acta Microbiol Pol, 2002; 51:353–66.

Ferreira SLC, Bruns RE, Ferreira HS, Matos GD, David JM, Brandao GC, da Silva EGP, Portugal LA, dos Reis PS, Souza AS, dos Santos WNL. Box-Behnken design: an alternative for the optimization of analytical methods. Analytica Chimica Acta, 2007; 597:179–86.

Forst S, Dowds B, Boemare NE, Stackebrandt E. Xenorhabdus spp. and Photorhabdus spp.: bugs that kill bugs. Annu Rev Microbiol, 1997; 51:47–72.

Fukruksa C, Yimthin T, Suwannaroj M, Muangpat P, Tandhavanant S, Thanwisai A, Vitta A. Isolation and identification of Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus bacteria associated with entomopathogenic nematodes and their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti. Parasit Vectors, 2017; 10:440.

Herbert EE, Goodrich-Blair H. Friend and foe: the two faces of Xenorhabdus nematophila. Nat Rev Microbiol, 2007; 5:634–46.

Huang YJS, Higgs S, Vanlandingham DL. Biological control strategies for mosquito vectors of arboviruses. Insects, 2017; 8:21.

Khandelwal P, Bhatnagar NB. Insecticidal Activity Associated with the Outer Membrane Vesicles of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Appl Environ Microbiol, 2003; 69:2032–7.

Khuri AI, Mukhopadhyay S. Response surface methodology. Comput Stat, 2010; 2:128–49.

Kumar P, Singh S, Dutta D, Chaudhuri S, Ganguly S, Nain L. Statistical optimization of media components for production of fibrinolytic alkaline metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3. Biotechnol Res Int, 2014; Article ID 293434:11.

Lowry OH, Rosebrough NJ, Farr AL, Randall RJ. Protein measurement with the Folin phenol reagent. J Biol Chem, 1961; 193:265–75.

Myers RH, Montgomery DC, Anderson-Cook CM. Response surface methodology: process and product optimization using designed experiments. John Wiley & Sons, New Jersey, 2009.

Owuama CI. Entomopathogenic symbiotic bacteria, Xenorhabdus and Photorhabdus of nematodes. World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2001; 17:505–15.

Plackett RL, Burman JP. The design of optimum multifactorial. Biometrika, 1946; 33:305–25.

Seccacini E, Lucia A, Harburguer L, Zerba E, Licastro S, Masuh H. Effectiveness of pyriproxyfen and diflubenzuron formulations as larvicide against Aedes aegypti. J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 2008; 24:398–403.

Silva Odd, Prado GR, Silva JLRd,Silva CE, Costa Md, Heermann R. Oral toxicity of Photorhabdus luminescens and Xenorhabdus nematophila (Enterobacteriaceae) against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae). Parasitol Res, 2013; 112:2891–6.

Stowe RA, Mayer RP. Efficient screening of process variables. Ind Eng Chem, 1966; 56:36–40.

Ramasamy B, Nadarajah VD, Soong ZK, Lee HL, Mohammed SM. A preliminary study of the bioactivity of vegetative proteins extracted from Malasyian Bacillus thurinjigiensis isolates. Trop Biomed, 2008; 25:64–74.

Walia S, Sharma K, Ganguli S. Entomopathogenic nematode-bacterium complex derived novel antibiotics and their pest control properties. In proceedings of short term National Training Course entitled "Advanced Techniques for Exploiting the ENBI Complexes (Entomopathogenic Nematodes-bacterial symbionts and the Insect hosts) for Biomanagement of Insect Pests of Crops, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, India, 2011.

Wang YH, Li YP, Zhang Q, Zhang X. Enhanced antibiotic activity of Xenorhabdus nematophila by medium optimization. Bioresour Technol, 2008; 99:1708–15.

Yang XF, Yang HW, Jian H, Liu Z. Effect of fermentation conditions on antibiotic production of Xenorhabdus nematophilus. Chin Microbial, 2001; 28:12–6.

Article Metrics
415 Views 34 Downloads 449 Total



Similar Articles

Related Search

By author names